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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 36-41

Effectiveness of an educational package on “Prevention Of Substance Abuse on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Girls In Selected Colleges Of Delhi


1 Clinical Instructor, RAK College of Nursing, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi, India
2 Dean Nursing, SGT University, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
3 Formerly Faculty, RAK College of Nursing, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication9-Jul-2019

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-1505.262448

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  Abstract 


A study to determine the extent of substance use and to assess the effectiveness of an educational package on prevention of substance use in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice of girls in selected colleges of Delhi. The research design adopted was pre experimental one group pre test post test design. Data was collected from 200 students of Delhi University with the help of structured knowledge questionnaire, attitude scale and practice checklist. The obtained data was analysed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics in terms of frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation and “t value”. Findings suggested that 33.5% girls used tobacco, and 45.5% girls used alcohol.
The obtained mean difference (8.7) for knowledge was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value 41.43 for Df=199 at 0.05 level of significance.The obtained mean difference for attitude was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value 42.74 for df=199 at 0.05 level of significance. The obtained mean difference (3.13) for practice was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value (10.1)for df= 199 at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: Educational package in the form of a booklet, pamphlets, power point presentation and games related to substance abuse was an effective method of teaching college girls about prevention of substance abuse as it not only provided them with the necessary learning and interactive material but also serves as a source of reference for them and their peers.


How to cite this article:
Singh J, Mehta S, Mathur R G. Effectiveness of an educational package on “Prevention Of Substance Abuse on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Girls In Selected Colleges Of Delhi. Indian J Psy Nsg 2018;15:36-41

How to cite this URL:
Singh J, Mehta S, Mathur R G. Effectiveness of an educational package on “Prevention Of Substance Abuse on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Girls In Selected Colleges Of Delhi. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Aug 20];15:36-41. Available from: http://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2018/15/2/36/262448




  Background of the Study Top


According to one news item in ‘The Hindu’ news on 4th. August, 2014, nearly 85% of the street children who are into substance abuse are from urban areas, 58.8% of them were not studying and only 22.9% went to regular school. Among the substances the children are addicted to, tobacco was found to be the most widely used, followed by alcohol, inhalants and cannabis. Peer pressure is the most important factor that drives the children to substance abuse. According to the study, the main reason for school going children and children living with their families taking drugs is the influence of another family member who uses drugs, followed by family fights and abuse. [1],[2],[3],[4]

Substance abuse among adolescents has become an issue of concern throughout the world. Increasing substance abuse and its impact on physical and psychosocial health is a worldwide public health concern affecting the early youth and subsequently the whole life of the individuals. Particularly disturbing fact is that the age of initiation of abuse is progressively falling. To plan effective interventions, it is essential to have information on the extent and type of substance abuse among school children and their attitude towards its control. [5],[6]

Peer pressure is the most important factor that drives the children to substance use. According to the study, the main reason for school going children and children living with their families taking drugs is the influence of another family member who uses drugs, followed by family fights and abuse. [5],[6],[7]

Substance abuse among adolescents has become an issue of concern throughout the world. Increasing substance abuse and its impact on physical and psychosocial health is a worldwide public health concern affecting the early youth and subsequently the whole life of the individuals. Particularly disturbing fact is that the age of initiation of abuse is progressively falling. To plan effective interventions, it is essential to have information on the extent and type of substance abuse among school children and their attitude towards its control. [7],[8]

World Health Organisation (WHO), 2013 Estimates that globally 25-90% of children and adolescents have ever used at least one substance of abus. In the recently released center for disease control(CDC) report on US school students from grade 9-12, the ever use of alcohol was 70%, binge drinking22%, cannabis use 40%, inhalants 11.4%, heroin 3%, injection use 2.3% and prescription drugs 20%. Not all children who experiment or use once may progress further with use of substance. However, some children especially those with biological, psychological and environmental risk factors tend to initiate and continue with the substance(s).[8],[9],[10]

Not all young people are equally at risk for developing an addiction. Various factors including inherited genetic predispositions and adverse experiences in early life make trying drugs and developing a substance use disorder more likely. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] By the same token, a range of factors, such as parenting that is nurturing or a healthy college environment, may encourage healthy development and thereby lessen the risk of later drug use. [15]Drug use at an early age is an important predictor of development of a substance use disorder later. The majority of those who have a substance use disorder started using before age 18 years and developed their disorder by age 20 years.[16],[17],[18] When substance use disorders occur in adolescence, they affect key developmental and social transitions, and they can interfere with normal brain maturation. These potentially lifelong consequences make addressing adolescent drug use an urgent matter.[19],[20] The serious health risks of drugs add to the need to get an adolescent who is abusing drugs to seek treatment as quickly as possible.[21],[22],[23],[24]

Adolescent girls being the productive population for the nation’s prosperity can be protected from indulging in substance abuse. Also, girls in colleges being an educated group, after drug abuse awareness program and education will help to increase their knowledge and develop an unfavourable attitude towards substance abuse. [25],[26],[27],[28]

Hence, the investigator felt the need to conduct a survey to assess the extent of substance use and also conduct an experiment on the girls’ knowledge and attitude regarding substance abuse. Thereafter the investigator developed an educational package on substance use disorders to enhance their knowledge and develop an unfavourable attitude towards substance use and develop healthy practices. [29]

Objectives

  1. To determine the extent of substance use among the college girls.
  2. To determine the knowledge of college going girls towards substance abuse before and after the administration of educational package.
  3. To determine the attitude of college going girls towards substance abuse before and after the administration of educational package.
  4. To determine the practice of college going girls regarding substance abuse before and after the administration of educational package.



  Material and Methods Top


Research Approach: In the present study “One Group PreTest, Post-Test Design” was selected.

Setting Of The Study: The research setting selected for the study was Daulat Ram College, Gargi college, north and south campus of Delhi University.

Sample and Sampling: The sample for the study consists of 200 college going girls selected by convenient sampling method.

In the present study a pre-experimental design to measure the effectiveness of educational package regarding prevention of substance abuse in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice of college girls.
Table 1: Research Design (Schematic Representation)

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  Major Findings Of The Study Top


Description of Subjects

Maximum number of girls belonged to 19 yrs. Age group (35.5%) followed by 18 yrs (31.5%) and 20 yrs. (25%). There were 85% girls were Hindu, 5.5% girls were Muslim , followed by christian and sikh both 3.5% and 2.5% girls belonged to other religion. Majority of the girls (30.5%) had their family income more than 100000/- followed by 28% of girls with family income of 70000 to 100000/- . Regarding family and friends, 51% girls reported that no one from their family or friends take alcohol. Whereas 20% girls expressed that their father and their friends take alcohol. 6.5% girls’ brother/sisters take alcohol and 2.5% girls’ mothers take alcohol. There were 11% girls said their friends take drugs. Followed by brother/sister of 2% girls and father takes drugs of 1% girls. Regarding self consumption of tobacco, 33.5% girls accepted they use tobacco. And 66.5% girls do not use any tobacco. There were 45.5% girls who take alcohol. And 54.5% do not use alcohol. Related to drugs, 6.5% girls take drugs i.e, 13 girls. And 93.5% do not abuse any drugs. The type of family was nuclear for 60% girls followed by joint family of 29.5%. 6.5% girls had single parent and 4% girls had extended family.

Most of the girls (52.5%) are staying in their home, 32.5% are residing as a PG, 9.5% girls are in the hostel and least number i.e, 5.5% girls are residing with their local guardian.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the educational package in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice.

  1. The mean Post test knowledge score was 20.98, which is higher than the mean Pre-test knowledge score of 12.28. (Maximum possible score was 24).
  2. The obtained mean difference (8.7) was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value 41.43 for degree of freedom 199 at 0.05 level of significance.
  3. The mean Post test attitude score was 69.85, which is higher than the mean Pre-test attitude score of 53.18. (Maximum possible score was 75).
  4. The obtained mean difference (16.67) was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value 42.74 for degree of freedom 199 at 0.05 level of significance.
  5. The mean Post test practice score was 31.70, which is higher than the mean Pre-test practice score of 28.57. (Maximum possible score was 33).
  6. The obtained mean difference (3.13) was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value (10.1)for degree of freedom 199 at 0.05 level of significance.


Relationship between post test knowledge, attitude and practice scores of college girls.

  1. There was a positive correlation (0.89) between post-test knowledge scores and post attitude scores of college girls, which is found to be statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance.
  2. There was a positive correlation (0.88) between post-test knowledge scores and post test practice scores of college girls, which is found to be statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance.
  3. There was a positive correlation (0.83) between post-test attitude scores and post test practice scores of college girls, which is found to be statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance.
Figure 1: A bar diagram showing the difference between the mean pre test and post test knowledge scores of college girls.

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Table 1: Mean, mean difference, standard deviation of difference, standard error of mean difference from pre-test to posttest knowledge scores and “t” value on educational package on prevention of substance use n= 200

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Figure 3: A bar diagram showing the difference between the mean pre test and post test attitude scores of college girls.

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Table 2: Mean, mean difference, standard deviation of difference, standard error of mean difference from pre-test to posttest attitude scores and “t” value on educational package on prevention of substance use n= 200

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Table 3: Mean, mean difference, standard deviation of difference, standard error of mean difference from pre-test to posttest Practice scores and “t” value on educational package on prevention of substance use n= 200

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  Conclusion Top


On the basis of the findings the present study the following conclusions were drawn

The college girls were deficit in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding substance use and its prevention as evident from their knowledge, attitude and practice pre-test scores.

There was significant difference in level of knowledge, attitude and practice of college girls after administration of educational package regarding prevention of substance use. There was a positive correlation between post-test knowledge scores and post-test attitude scores of college girls. There was a positive correlation between post-test knowledge scores and post test practice scores of college girls respectively. There was a positive correlation between post-test attitude scores and post test practice scores of college girls respectively. The educational package was found to be effective in enhancing the knowledge of the college girls regarding prevention of substance use. High post test attitude and practice scores signify the effectiveness of the educational package for improving the attitude and practices of college girls against substance use. Written educational package in the form of a booklet, pamphlets, power point presentation and games related to substance use disorder was an effective method of teaching college girls about prevention of substance use as it not only provided them with the necessary learning and interactive material but also serves as a source of reference for them and their peers.


  Discussion Top


In this section, major findings of the study have been compared with reference to the results obtained by other investigators. The study results revealed that the educational package (including a PowerPoint presentation, an informational booklet, a pamphlet and activities related to substance use disorder) was effective in increasing the knowledge of college girls regarding prevention of substance use. This is similar to the findings of studies done on testing of informational booklet that it was an effective teaching tool for enhancing the knowledge.[13],[15],[21],[25],[27]

The study results revealed that the educational package was effective in developing an unfavourable attitude and practice towards substance use. This is similar to the findings of the another study.[28],[29] This is also similar to the findings of the previous studies. These studies found that the informational booklet was an effective method for developing unfavourable attitude towards substance use.[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[25],[27]

The present study findings revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between knowledge scores and attitude scores of college girls. Also, there was a positive correlation found between knowledge scores and practice scores ; and attitude scores and practice scores. These findings are in conformity with the findings of the previous studies [14],[15],[20],[24],[26],[28],[29]

Implications:

The immediate implications are for the school and college teachers, tht they can use this booklet for all the children as the child leave primary school, again when children enter in middle school, high school and college. And also there is implication for parents who also can be encouraged to read the booklet. All nurses working with youth must pay attention to preventive aspect of substance use. Prevention is better than cure is absolutely true in case of Substance use.



 
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