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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 77-83

Effectiveness of guideline on knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers towards identification and management of children with specific learning disabilities


Department of Nursing, MHI (COE), SCB MCH, Cuttack, Odisha, India

Date of Web Publication21-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kalyani Moharana
Department of Nursing, MHI (COE), SCB MCH, Cuttack - 753 007, Odisha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_27_19

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  Abstract 


Background: An effective education is vital not only for individual advancement but also to provide a capable workforce and citizenry for our country. Initial teacher training is regarded as a cornerstone of the development of inclusive education. Learning disabilities (LDs) are present in at least 10% of the population. In India, prevalence rate of LD ranges from 9% to 39% and incidence of dyslexia in primary school children has been reported to be 2%–18%. Aim and Objective: Present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the guidelines on knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers toward identification and management of children with specific LDs (SPLDs) by conducting pretest before intervention and posttests after intervention on 7th and 60th day. Materials and Methods: From each Zone (East, West, North, and South) of Odisha, one district was selected. A total of 269 trainee school teachers sample were selected. Qualitative study approach was used in this study with pretested and predesigned questionnaire. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) to compare pretest and posttest knowledge questionnaire and attitude scale score over the time period; the “P” value was significant at 0.001. Results: Findings revealed that the data were analyzed using RMANOVA to compare pretest and posttest knowledge questionnaire and attitude scale score over the time period; the “P” value was significant at 0.001. This indicated that the guidelines for trainee school teachers toward identification and management of children with SPLD was effective in improving the knowledge and attitude significantly over the time period of the trainee school teachers. Conclusion: Guideline (self-instructional module) is effective for trainee school teachers to improve their knowledge and attitude toward identification and management of children with SPLDs over the time period.

Keywords: District Institution of Education and Training, guidelines (self-instructional module), specific learning disabilities, trainee school teacher


How to cite this article:
Moharana K. Effectiveness of guideline on knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers towards identification and management of children with specific learning disabilities. Indian J Psy Nsg 2019;16:77-83

How to cite this URL:
Moharana K. Effectiveness of guideline on knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers towards identification and management of children with specific learning disabilities. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 6];16:77-83. Available from: http://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2019/16/2/77/276350




  Introduction Top


Specific learning disability (SPLD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest in childhood as persistent difficulties in learning to efficiently read (dyslexia), write (dysgraphia), or perform mathematical calculations (dyscalculia) despite normal intelligence, conventional schooling, intact hearing and vision, adequate motivation, and sociocultural opportunity.[1] These children present with “academic problems” such as reading slowly and incorrectly, skipping lines while reading aloud, making repeated spelling mistakes, untidy/illegible handwriting with poor sequencing, and inability to perform even simple additions and subtractions.[2] Children with SPLD invariably fail to achieve school grades at a level that is commensurate with their intelligence.[3] Their “academic problems” also have an adverse impact on their quality of life, namely self-image, peer and family relationships, and social interactions.[4] Learning disabilities (LDs) are present in at least 10% of the population.[5]

In India, incidence of dyslexia in primary school children has been reported to be 2%–18%.[4] Preparing teachers to meet the needs of children with disabilities remains a complex challenge. General education teachers feel unprepared, and attrition and teacher shortages in special education remain high. Despite a trend toward inclusive education, many children continue to be educated in segregated settings.[6] At the primary level the teachers should play a vital role in identifying children with LD. The teachers require specific abilities on knowledge of different types of LD, causative factors, development of instructional strategies, apart from given guidance and counseling.[7] Information about SPLD occurring in Indian children is scanty because of a general lack of awareness about this invisible handicap.[8] One of the main barriers encountered by students with LD is the teacher's lack of knowledge about their disability and about the rationale of provisions.[9] Making the child aware of a disability is a great service to the child. Unless such children are identified and properly treated, they may develop secondary emotional, social, and family problems. Increased feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, low self-esteem, and lack of assertiveness make an individual rejected socially.[4]

Early identification and interventions can bring about plenty of changes. With proper diagnosis, appropriate educational support students can greatly benefit when the teacher takes little time to thought to accommodate these needs. With appropriate identification and remedial education, children with SPLDs can close the gap and develop effective compensatory skills, yet a significant percentage progress into adulthood, poorly prepared to transition successfully into the world of work and able to live a productive life. The view of the above the current study focuses on assessing the knowledge and attitude of the trainee school teachers regarding identification and management of children with SPLDs. This aims at developed and evaluated the effectiveness of guidelines for identification and management of children with LDs on the level of knowledge and attitude, this was helped in finding out how the guidelines utilized effectively among the trainee school teachers. Relevance of such researcher was determined to improve knowledge and positive attitude through administered guidelines to the trainee school teachers.

Objectives

  1. To assess and evaluate the knowledge of trainee school teachers towards identification and management of children with SPLDs before and after the administration of guidelines
  2. To assess and evaluate the attitude of trainee school teachers towards identification and management of children with SPLDs before and after the administration of guidelines
  3. To determine the correlation between knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers in comparison to pre- and post-test scores over the time period after administration of guidelines.


Operational definition

Guidelines

Refers to the instructions and recommended practices that would allow some discretion or flexibilities in its interpretations/implementations or use to identify and management of children with SPLDs. Guidelines include:

  • Unit I: Concept on SPLDs
  • Unit II: Dyslexia (reading disorder)
  • Unit III: Dysgraphia (disorders of writing expression)
  • Unit IV: Dyscalculia (mathematics disorders)
  • Unit V: Management of SPLDs children.


Trainee school teachers

The trainee school teachers, who are undergoing teacher training programme in District Institute of Education and Training (DIET), recognized by Government of Odisha and National Council for Educational Research and Training.

Specific learning disabilities

“SPLDs means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do arithmetic calculations. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (IDEA, 2004).


  Materials and Methods Top


A quantitative, one group pre test post test quasi experimental design was selected for this study. From each Zone (East, West, North, and South) of Odisha, one district was selected. Nonprobability convenience sampling technique was used to select the DIET institutions from all the four zones of Odisha. The districts selected were from East zone - Jagatsingh Pur, West zone - Bargarh, North zone - Mayuarbhanj, and South zone - Koraput. A total of 269 trainee school teachers were selected: 64 from Jagatsinghpur, 56 Bargarh, 89 Mayuarbhanj, and 60 from Koraput. The Guidelines on classroom management of children with SPLD was developed mainly based on the Clinical Practice Guidelines for specific learning disorders (Lead Paper) by Dr. Nilesh Shah and Dr. Tushar Bhat. To ensure content validity the knowledge questionnaire and attitude scale, feedback form on guidelines were submitted to 14 experts in the field of psychiatry - 5, psychiatric nursing - 3, psychology - 4, pediatrics - 1, and community medicine - 1. The result for knowledge questionnaire Guttman split-half coefficient value was 0.986 and Cronbach's alpha value was 0.945, for attitude scale Guttman split-half Coefficient value was 0.997, and Cronbach's alpha value was 1.000. All the tools' reliability were found significant. Data were collected by administration of structured questionnaires, which had the socio demographical datasheet consists of 9 items, 45 items on the knowledge questionnaire, and 25 items on attitude scale. Data were collected after obtaining the necessary permission from the authorities and informed consent from the participants.


  Results Top


Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analyzing the data.

Characteristics of sample individuals

Among all the study individuals, 93.70% were in the age of 18–25 years. In the present study, age of the trainee school teachers did not have any significant effect on the knowledge and attitude regarding identification and management of SPLD children. In majority of the trainee school teachers, 161 individuals (59.9%) were female and did not have any significant effect on the knowledge and attitude regarding identification and management of SPLD children. Majority of the trainee school teachers, i.e. 259 (96.3%) were unmarried. Majority of the trainee school teachers, i.e. 219 individuals (81.40%) were from rural area. The trainee school teachers, i.e. 269 (100%) were studied in general school; they had no SPLD child in their families, individuals were not exposed to any class on SPLD, and individuals had no knowledge on remedial education. Where 118 individuals (43.90%) had hobbies of reading of health periodicals, 151 individuals (56.10%) had no hobbies. Majority of the trainee school teachers, i.e. 151 individuals (56.10%) had no hobbies of reading of health periodicals.

[Table 1] shows that the maximum correct score obtained by trainee school teachers was 89 (33.09%) on item number 5 and minimum score was 1 (0.37%) on item number 38. While comparing the total mean percentage obtained by trainee school teachers' knowledge on various items found that it was inadequate knowledge (<50%) at pretest level.
Table 1: Item-wise analysis (frequency and percentage) of knowledge questionnaire score at pretest level (n=269)

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In [Table 2], the data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) to compare pretest and posttest knowledge score conducting over time period. The pretest knowledge mean score was 2.77, standard deviation (SD) was 2.224, posttest-I on 7th day mean was 44.48, SD was 0.799 and posttest-II on 60th day mean was 44.90, SD was 0.313. The paired differences between the pretest and posttest-I on 7th day knowledge showed the knowledge gained and the value was 41.71 and the paired differences between the posttest on 7th day and on 60th day knowledge score gained and the value was 0.42. The “P” value was significant at 0.001.
Table 2: The effectiveness of guidelines on trainee school teachers' knowledge towards identification and management of children with specific learning disabilities conducting over time period

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[Table 3] depicts that, the maximimum undecided score obtained by trainee school teachers was 170 (63.2%) on item no - 1 and minimum score was 1 (0.37%) on item no - 10 and 21. While comparing the total frequency and percentage obtained by trainee school teachers' attitude scale score on various items, it was found that there were favorable (50%–75%) attitude scale score.
Table 3: Item wise analysis (frequency and percentage) of attitude scale score at pretest level (n=269)

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In [Table 4], the data were analyzed using RMANOVA to compare pretest, posttest-I, and posttest-II attitude scale score conducting over the time period. The pretest attitude mean was 85.08, SD was 4.978, posttest-I mean was 99.18, SD was 4.067 and posttest-II mean was 101.22, SD was 4.121. The “P” value was significant at 0.001.
Table 4: The effectiveness of guidelines on trainee school teachers' attitude towards identification and management of children with specific learning disabilities conducting over time period

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[Table 5] shows that, the correlation between knowledge and attitude score revealed that was correlated positively at pretest (r = 0.023 and “P” = 0.713) but not statistically significant. After intervention of guidelines revealed that the knowledge and attitude score was correlated positively at 7th day (r = 0.071 and “P” =0.245) and at 60th day (r = 0.055 and “P” = 0.372) but both were not statistically significant. It was inferred that there were no significant correlation between knowledge and attitude score at pretest, posttest–I on 7th day, and posttest–II on 60th day.
Table 5: The correlation between knowledge and attitude in comparison to pre- and post-test scores over the time period (n=269)

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  Discussion Top


Finding of the study showed that among all the study participants, 93.70% were in the age of 18–25 years. In the present study, age of the trainee school teachers did not have any significant effect on the knowledge and attitude regarding identification and management of SPLD children. Contrary to this study, Bhatnagar and Das[9] indicated that the teachers who were more positive about inclusive education were male, younger teachers (<40 years of age). Majority of the trainee school teachers, i.e. 161 individuals (59.9%) were female and did not have any significant effect on the knowledge and attitude regarding identification and management of SPLD children. Supporting to this study, Vlachou et al.[10] reported that the teachers' gender was not found significant in most of the cases. Contrary to this study, Saravanabhavan S reported that male teachers were more favorable attitudes than did female teachers.[11] Majority of the trainee school teachers 259 (96.3%) were unmarried. Majority of the trainee school teachers, i.e. 219 individuals (81.40%) were from rural area. Majority of the trainee school teachers, i.e. 151 individuals (56.10%) had no hobbies of reading of health periodicals.

The Item-wise analysis of knowledge score at pretest level. While comparing the total mean percentage obtained by trainee school teachers' knowledge on various items found that it was inadequate knowledge (<50%) at pretest level. Gandhimathi.[3] found that majority of the respondents (66.2%) were found to have low level of overall awareness about LD. The one-way ANOVA showed that the knowledge level of LDs among teachers working in regular schools was statistically different. Among the three groups, the preservice teacher group scored the lowest (M = 60.76, SD = 13.36, n = 165) which was below the mean score for the entire group (M = 66.32, SD = 13.37, n = 347). Teaching experience and familiarity with persons with LD did not affect the knowledge level of the three groups of participants.

The data were analyzed using RMANOVA to compare pretest and posttest knowledge score to assess the effectiveness of guidelines on trainee school teachers' knowledge toward identification and management of children with SPLDs conducting over time period. This indicated that the guidelines for trainee school teachers toward identification and management of children with SPLDs was effective in improving the knowledge score significantly over the time period of the trainee school teachers'. Supporting to this, Ismail et al.[12] revealed that a training module help in improving knowledge competencies for resource room teachers in Jordan was effective.

Item-wise analysis of attitude scale score at pretest level. While comparing the total frequency and percentage obtained by trainee school teachers' attitude scale score on various items found that there were favorable (50%–75%) attitude scale score. Similar to this study, Bhatnagar and Das[9] identified that the teachers in delhi had positive attiude towards the inclusion of studnets with special needs. Contrary to this study, a review of 26 studies conducted by Boer et al.[13] revealed that the majority of teachers hold neutral or negative attitudes towards the inclusion of pupils with special needs in regular primary education. No studies reported clear positive results. Several variables are found which relate to teachers' attitudes, such as training, experience with inclusive education and pupils' type of disability.

The data were analyzed using RMANOVA. This indicated that the guidelines for trainee school teachers' toward identification and management of children with SPLDs was effective in improving positive attitude significantly over the time period. Similarly, Kraska and Boyle[14] used two-way ANOVAs which revealed that studying a module on inclusive education is a particularly important factor in the development of preservice teacher attitudes toward inclusion. Contrary to this, Avramidis and Norwich[15] showed evidence of positive attitudes, but no evidence of acceptance of a total inclusion or “zero reject” approach to special educational provision.

The score of correlation between the knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers' towards children with SpLD was inferred that there were no significant correlation between knowledge and attitude score at pretest, posttest–I on 7th day and posttest–II on 60th day. Supporting to this study, Campbell et al.[16] illustrated that the value of combining information-based instruction with structured fieldwork experiences in changing attitudes towards disability and inclusion. It also demonstrated that raising awareness of one disability may lead to changes in attitudes toward disability in general.


  Conclusion and Recommendations Top


The most of trainee school teachers' had poor knowledge towards identification of SPLD in children at pretest level, but most of them had favorable attitude. The guideline was useful to improve the knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers. Since primary level teachers are playing a vital role in educating a child, it is essential that the DIET course or teachers training program should equip the teachers with knowledge and attitude towards SpLDs children. The problems faced by children with SpLDs in our country can and have to be addressed at a national level on a war footing. We owe it to them because health and education are the most important aspects of human resource development. Further a comparative study can be arranged among teachers and trainee school teachers, between primary, secondary and university level teachers, between urban and rural area settings to assess the magnitude of the problem.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Bhatnagar N, Das A. Attitudes of secondary school teachers towards inclusive education in New Delhi, India. J Res Spec Educ Needs 2014;14:255-63.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Vlachou A, Eleftheriadou D, Metallidou P. Do learning difficulties differentiate elementary teachers' attributional patterns for students' academic failure? A comparison between Greek regular and special education teachers. Eur J Spec Needs Educ 2014;29:1-15.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Ismail HN, Al-Zoubi SM, Rahman MB, Al-Shabatat AM. Competency based teacher education (CBTE): A training module for improving knowledge competencies for resource room teachers in Jordan. Eur J Soc Sci 2009;10:166.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Boer AD, Pijl SJ, Minnaert A. Regular primary schoolteachers' attitudes towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. Int J Inclusive Educ 2011;15:331-53.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Kraska J, Boyle C. Attitudes of preschool and primary school pre-service teachers towards inclusive education. Asia Pac J Teach Educ 2014;42:228-46.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Avramidis E, Norwich B. Teachers' attitudes towards integration/inclusion: A review of the literature. Eur J Spec Needs Educ 2002;17:129-47.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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