Indian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15--18

A study to assess the causes, sources, and effects of selected psychoactive substance use among a selected rehabilitation center in Hyderabad with a view to develop an informational booklet


Anumol Joseph1, Amreen Rupani2, Anju Chacko2, Clifty Prinson2, Mythili Joanna2, Sujana2,  
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Mental Health Nursing, Vijaymarie College of Nursin, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Staff Nurses, Casuality Department, Vijaymarie Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Anumol Joseph
Vijay Marie Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana
India

Abstract

Background: Psychoactive substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others and is a form of substance-related disorder. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the causes, sources, and effects of psychoactive substance use. Methodology: The present study is done by nonexperimental descriptive method, and the sampling technique used was purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted on a group of 60 inmates in Asha Jyothi Rehabilitation Center using a structured questionnaire.In regards to the effects of substance abuse reveal that majority (58.3%) of the clients were moderately affected and the remaining (41.6%) were severely affected.There were no addicts with mild effects. With regard to causes, 30 (60%) samples took substances to feel energetic and 24 (40%) of them take to feel high on taking just once. Major cause of psychoactive substance use identified was peer pressure found in 28 (46.3%) inmates. Regarding the sources of procurement, the majority, i.e., 36 (60%), of subjects consumed alcohol. The main source of procurement was friends (35, 58.3%) and the preferred place was in friend's home (27, 45%) with friends (44, 73.3%). The study can be useful in educating youth and addicts about substance abuse and its prevention.



How to cite this article:
Joseph A, Rupani A, Chacko A, Prinson C, Joanna M, Sujana. A study to assess the causes, sources, and effects of selected psychoactive substance use among a selected rehabilitation center in Hyderabad with a view to develop an informational booklet.Indian J Psy Nsg 2019;16:15-18


How to cite this URL:
Joseph A, Rupani A, Chacko A, Prinson C, Joanna M, Sujana. A study to assess the causes, sources, and effects of selected psychoactive substance use among a selected rehabilitation center in Hyderabad with a view to develop an informational booklet. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 12 ];16:15-18
Available from: http://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2019/16/1/15/269166


Full Text



 Introduction



Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The use can lead to dependency syndrome – a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and psychological phenomena.[1] Rehabilitation is an action of restoring someone to health or normal life through training and therapy after addiction or illness.[2]

Psychoactive substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others and is a form of substance-related disorder. In some cases, criminal or antisocial behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug and long-term personality changes in individuals as occur as well. Drugs most commonly abused are alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, opioids, and some substituted amphetamines. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear. In 2010, about 5% of people (230 million) used an illicit substance; of these, 27 million have high-risk drug use otherwise known as recurrent drug use causing harm to their health, psychological, or social problems that put them at risk of those dangers. In 2015, substance use disorder resulted in 307,400 deaths up from 165,000 deaths from 1990. Of these, the highest number is from alcohol use disorders at 137,500 followed by opioid use disorder at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorder at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorder at 11,100 deaths.[3]

 Methodology



The research approach adopted for the present study was quantitative research approach. A nonexperimental descriptive survey design was adopted for the present study. The study was conducted in Asha Jyothi Rehabilitation Center, Shamshabad. The sample size of the study is 60 psychoactive substance abusers of Asha Jyothi Rehabilitation Center, Shamshabad. The sampling is done by purposive sampling technique. The tool used for data collection is questionnaire. Structured questionnaire schedule contains two parts; Part A comprises the demographic data, age, gender, education, occupation, and family type and Part B consists of questions to assess the effect, causes, and sources of psychoactive substance use. The questions on effects were scored on 3-point Likert scale.

The findings in [Table 1] show that majority of the clients with substance abuse were under the age group of 30–60 years 39 (65%), followed by 18–30 years 17, (28.33%) and >60 years 4 (6.66%). There were 52 males (86.6%) and eight females (13.3%). Only three samples (5%) were uneducated. Majority of them (26, 43.3%) were private employees and five samples (8.3%) were students. About 31 (51.6%) were living in a nuclear family type and 7 (11.6%) were in a sibling household.{Table 1}

[Table 2] shows that 30 (60%) samples took substances to feel energetic and 24 (40%) of them take to feel high on taking just once. The major cause identified was peer pressure that is 28 (46.3%) study subjects, followed by other causes like family influences 15 (25%), identification with groups 8 (13.3%), and modeling on the drug behavior of friends, influence of relatives, and sexual dissatisfaction contributing to 3 (5%), 3 (5%), and 3 (5%), respectively.{Table 2}

[Table 3] the investigators found that majority of subjects consumed alcohol (36, 60%). The main source of procurement was friends (35, 58.3%) and the preferred place was in friend's home (27, 45%) with friends (44, 73.3%).{Table 3}

[Figure 1] represents that majority of subjects that is 35 (58.3%) reported moderate effects followed by 25 (41.6%) of the subjects reported to have severe effects and none reported to have mild 0 (0%) effects.{Figure 1}

[Table 4] summarizes that the mean scores of effects of psychoactive substance abuse further the rank order of effects showed that the highest modified mean score was found in psychological domain (0.12) whereas the least modified mean scores were found in social (0.005). The descending order of effects of psychoactive substance abuse domain-wise rank order was psychological (0.12), spiritual (0.1), biological (0.078), financial (0.077), and social (0.005).{Table 4}

 Discussion



According to a study conducted by Mishra et al.[4] in rehabilitation center in Nepal, the study showed that most of the study subjects were in the age group of 15–25 years and unmarried, most of the study subjects consumed alcohol as addictive substance, and most of the patients procured substances from friends and used to consume at their home. Most of the study subjects consumed substances for pleasure and also as they felt lonely. As per the severity, 75% of the study subjects had more harmful effects of the substance use disorders. Among the causes of substance use disorders, psychological causes ranked the highest. There was no significant relationship between the effect of substance use disorders and the selected variables. The present study findings are incongruent to the former study. The researchers found out that that majority (39, 65%) of the clients with substance abuse are under the age group 30–60 years, 30 (60%) samples take substance to feel energetic, and the major cause is peer pressure (28, (46.3%). The main source of procurement was friends (35, 58.3%) and the preferred place was in friend's home (27, 45%) with friends (44, 73.3%). The majority of samples were under the moderate effects (35, 58.3%) which is similar to Mishra et al.'s study which highlighted friends' home and source of procurement was friends. As per a study conducted by Naidu,[5] explored causes and effects of alcoholism on 500 youths studying in private engineering college in Nagpur. The major findings were 66% due to curiosity, 16% due to peer group pressure, and 18% to get rid of worries.6 According to the present study, with regard to causes, the findings highlighted that 38 samples from 60 populations (60%) were taking substance to feel energetic, 28 samples (46.6%) were due to peer pressure, and 24 samples (40%) for customary practice.

 Conclusion



The findings of the study showed that most of the study subjects were in the age group of 30–60 years and unmarried, most of the study subjects consumed alcohol as addictive substance, and most of the patients procured substances from friends and used to consume at their friend's home. Most of the study subjects consumed substances for pleasure and also for feeling energetic. As per the severity, 75% of the study subjects had more harmful effects of the substance use disorders, and psychological causes ranked the highest. There was no significant relationship between the effects of substance use disorders and the selected variable.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Available from: http://www.who.int/topis/substance_abuse/en/. [Last accessed on 2019 Jun 23].
2Available from: http://en.oxforddictationaries.com/definition/rehabilitation. [Last accessed on 2019 Jul 03].
3GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2015. Lancet 2016;388:1459-544.
4Mishra R, Shaiju B, Sharma V.A study to determine the sources, effects and causes for substance use disorders and to develop an informational booklet on prevention and management of substance use disorders in selected drug de-addiction and rehabilitation centers of Nepal. Int J Psychiatr Nur 201;1:136-41.
5Naidu R. A Study on the Causes and Effects of Alcoholism amongst out Station 500 Youth Studying in Private Engineering Colleges. Vol. 2. University of Nagpur; 1997.