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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-23

Relationship of emotional intelligence with self- esteem among adolescents


1 M. Sc., Nursing Student, University College of Nursing, BFUHS, Faridkot (Pb), India
2 Assistant Professor, University College of Nursing, BFUHS, Faridkot (Pb), India

Date of Web Publication19-Jun-2019

Correspondence Address:
S K Maheshwari
Assistant Professor, University College of Nursing, BFUHS, Faridkot (Pb)
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-1505.240278

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  Abstract 


Adolescence is a time in which adolescents give way to intense emotional relationships and find self concept and build self esteem. Literature reports that 55%-63% of adolescents are at low level of emotional intelligence which results in low self esteem. The present survey was conducted to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and self esteem among 200 randomly selected (lottery method) students from six conveniently selected schools of dist. Faridkot, Punjab by using the emotional intelligence scale (EIS), Rosernberg self- esteem rating scale and socio demographic data sheet. Emotional intelligence scores were compared with self esteem scores. The Pearson's product moment correlation, t-test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that emotional intelligence and self esteem had significant positive correlation at the level of 0.01. Study concluded that emotionally intelligent adolescents have high self esteem. Adolescents should be early identified early for emotionally immaturity and can be managed with help of school health nurse in school setting by providing different strategies for emotional intelligence and thus enhancing the self esteem.

Keywords: Adolescents, emotional intelligence, self esteem


How to cite this article:
Tajpreet K, Maheshwari S K. Relationship of emotional intelligence with self- esteem among adolescents. Indian J Psy Nsg 2015;10:18-23

How to cite this URL:
Tajpreet K, Maheshwari S K. Relationship of emotional intelligence with self- esteem among adolescents. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Oct 26];10:18-23. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2015/10/1/18/240278




  Introduction Top


As we venture into the new millennium, word emotion has emerged a new meaning. The word emotional means “markedly aroused or agitated in feeling or sensibilities”.[1] A person is said to be emotionally intelligent when he feels proper emotion in a proper situation and express it in a proper quantity.[2]

Today, 1.2 billion are adolescents worldwide.[2] Adolescence is a crucial period in which the young people search for identity and meaning in life and important aspects are their emotions and self esteem.3 Goleman (1998)1 cited that there is a worldwide trend for the present generation to be more troubled emotionally than the last; more lonely and depressed; more angry and unruly; more impulsive and angry and more nervous and prone to worry.[1]

Swami Veerabhadra et al (2014)[4] stated that 63.38% of adolescents were emotionally immature. Shobha Nandwan & Kushagra Joshi (2010)[5] reported 55% of adolescents had poor level of emotional intelligence. Similarly Resmy jose and Sujatha R (2012)[6] found 46% of the adolescents are emotionally unstable and Sharma Bharti (2012)[7] stated that 52% of adolescents were emotionally immature.

Emotional intelligence has been defined as the ability to adaptively recognize, understand, manage and harness emotions both in self and others and to use emotion to facilitate cognitive processing.[8] It is a skill, which involves three processes that are perception, (or the ability to consciously recognize our emotions), understanding (integrating what we feel in our thoughts) and regulation (lead and manage effectively both positive and negative emotions).[9]

Self-esteem is appreciating one's own worth, importance and having the character to be accountable for oneself and to act responsibly towards others.[10] It doesn’t mean seeing oneself as the greatest person in the world but it refers to how we feel about or how we value ourselves.[11]

Literature revealed that higher emotional intelligence is typically associated to positive moods and higher self esteem because emotionally intelligent persons are able to maintain positive mental states due to their capability to efficiently manage their emotions.[12]

When a person can accept his/ her weakness and faults and simultaneously recognizes his/ her strengths and positive qualities, the person will experience strong self worth and high self esteem.[13]. Schutte et al., (2002)[14] provide proof in support of the correlation between emotional intelligence and self-esteem.

The main objectives of this study is to assess whether emotional intelligence is distinctive and useful in understanding the relationship with self esteem and it is essential to study the level to which individuals that scored high in emotional intelligence experience greater self esteem and relationship of emotional intelligence and self esteem with other demographic variables is assessed.


  Materials and Methods Top


A descriptive cross sectional survey was done to assess the relationship of emotional intelligence and self esteem with each other and with other demographic variables. The present study was conducted at six conveniently selected schools of district Faridkot, Punjab. The sample size for the study was 200 adolescents (14-16 years) randomly chosen from selected schools of District Faridkot, Punjab. The age of adolescents lies between 1st January 1997 to 31st December 1999.

Total three measures were used to collect data from the subjects

1. Socio demographic data sheet:

It was developed by researchers to collect socio demographic data of subjects. It had 7 items related to age (date of birth), gender, standard / class, type of family, family income (in rupees per month), educational status of mother and educational status of father. Total administration time for this tool was approx. 2-3 minutes. Content validity of tool was determined by subject experts. Reliability was done by test–retest method and it was 1.0.

2. Emotional intelligence scale

The emotional intelligence scale (Schutte et al., 1998)[15] is a 33 item scale to assess the subjects ability to identify, understand, regulate and harness emotions both in themselves and in others. It is a five point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Item number 5, 28 and 33 are reverse scored. Maximum score is 165. High score indicate high emotional intelligence. This scale has demonstrated internal consistency of between 0.87 and 0.90 and two week test retest reliability of 0.78 (Schutte et.al, 1998). Total administration time for this tool was approx. 10 minutes. For the present study, reliability was r=0.83.

3. The Rosenberg self esteem scale

The Rosenberg self esteem scale is (Rosenberg, 1965)[16] is a standardized, 10 item likert scale to measure the global feelings of self acceptance and self worth of an individual. The 10 items are rated on 1- 4 point Likert scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Item number 2, 5, 6, 8, 9 have reversed score. The maximum possible score is 30. High score reflects high self esteem. This measure has demonstrated test re-test reliability of 0.85 and internal consistency reliability of 0.88 (Rosenberg, 1965). Total administration time for this tool was approx. 5 minutes. For the present study, reliability was r=0.83.

Tools were piloted to ensure the reliability and understanding of the tool and further modified. Pilot study was conducted in a senior secondary school of Faridkot to find feasibility of the study. The study was found to be feasible. Study approval was taken from ethical committee of the University College of Nursing Baba Farid University of Health Sciences. Statistical analysis was done by using Pearson's product moment correlation, t-test and ANOVA through SPSS (16) software. The Pearson's product moment correlation was used to measure the relationship between emotional intelligence and self esteem and t-test and ANOVA were used to find relationship of emotional intelligence and self esteem with selected demographic variable.


  Results Top


[Table 1] shows that maximum number of adolescents were of females, belonged to age 15 years, were studying in class ninth, with a family income of below 5000Rs per month and majority of their parents had never gone to school.
Table 1: Distribution of subjects according to socio-demographic characteristics n=200

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[Table 2] states the correlation between emotional intelligence and self esteem. The Pearson's product moment correlation results state that emotional intelligence has strong positive correlation with self esteem at 0.01 level of significance.
Table 2: Correlation between emotional intelligence and self esteem n=200

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Study results showed no significant relationship between socio-demographic variables such as gender, type of family, class, income, educational status of mother and educational status of father with emotional intelligence at the level of 0.05.

Similarly, no significant relationship was found between socio-demographic variables such as gender, type of family, class, income, educational status of mother and educational status of father with self esteem at the level of 0.05.


  Discussion Top


The present study shows a strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self esteem. This finding is consistent with the other available literatures. Lourdes Rey et.al,[16] found direct association of emotional intelligence and life satisfaction of adolescents with self esteem. Similarly Country & Chester (2005)[17] conducted a study on emotional intelligence and self-esteem which revealed that there is a good relationship between the emotional intelligence and self-esteem.

In India, Sameer (2008)[18] investigated the relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among trainees of Tsunami affected coastal belt of Alappey district of Kerala, India. He found that both emotional intelligence and self esteem were positively correlated.

Moreover, Iram Abbass[19] showed positive and significant relationship of emotional intelligence and self esteem among Pakistani adolescents. Petrides & Furnham (2006)[20] suggest that higher emotional intelligence is associated with better psychological functioning.

Schutte et al[21] found emotional intelligence is associated with higher empathetic perspective taking and self monitoring in social situations and they have more affectionate relationships. Marital relationship is stronger in emotionally intelligent people. Austin et al,[22] found a strong association between emotional intelligence and happiness and found congruent relation to well being.

The possible reason for strong relationship between emotional intelligence and self esteem may be that emotionally intelligent persons are likely to experience a higher level of psychological well being and a lower level of emotional deficit than persons, who possess a low level of emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent persons are able to maintain positive mental states due to their capability to efficiently manage (by recognizing, understanding, generating, regulating and promoting) their emotions.[12] When a person accepts his/ her faults and simultaneously recognizes his/ her strengths and positive qualities, the person will experience strong self worth and high self esteem.

Present study revealed no association of self esteem and emotional intelligence with other socio demographic variables. Similar findings were seen in a study by Kalyansundaram[23] and John Deva Sagayam[24] who reported no significant difference in emotional intelligence among students and between the sub groups with regard to their type of family, community or family income. Tyagi (2004)[25] stated that emotional intelligence is independent of age. Ghodhawan & Murugan (2009)[26] found that socio economic status do not cause any significant effect on emotional intelligence.

This study indicated that emotional maturity is non significantly related to gender. S Dalwinder et al. (2012)[27]supported it and found no significant difference with regard to emotional instability, emotional regression, personality disintegration and lack of independence except social maladjustment.

The study implies and recommends that Adolescents should be regularly screened for emotional intelligence and emotional maturity to find their emotional problems. Emotions, emotional maturity, emotional intelligence and its components should be included in nursing curriculum, so that sufficient emphasis can be given to understanding of emotional problems. Findings of the study will act as a catalyst to carry out more extensive research in a large sample and in other settings and such research work enforces evidence based practice. Teachers, parents and health care providers can be trained in various techniques to maintain emotional stability and high self esteem. Study recommends that psycho education, counseling, meditation classes or other such techniques may be given to the emotionally immature adolescents to build their self concept and self esteem. Psychiatric nurses and school health nurses must be given regular training regarding emotional intelligence and building of self esteem of students.


  Conclusion Top


The findings of the present investigation suggested that emotional intelligence and self esteem are positively and significantly correlated. Adolescent students should be regularly assessed for their emotional intelligence as it affects the self esteem and other variables of individual. Educational interventions should be included in curriculum to manage emotional immaturity among school adolescents and it can be used in school setting by school health nurse.



 
  References Top

1.
Goleman Working with emotional intelligence. New York. Bantom books; 1998  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Prevalence of adolescents in world (cited 18 May 2013). Available from: http://web.unfpa.org/focus/india/facetoface/ docs/adolescentsprofile.pdf  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Carmeli, et al. “The relationship among emotional intelligence, task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors”, Human Performance. 2007; 19(4):403-19.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Swami Veerabhadra, Rao Satheesh, Ancheril Alphonsa. Effectiveness of counseling on emotional maturity. Journal of biology, agriculture and health care. 2014;4(6): 34-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Shobha Nandwan, Kashagra Joshi. Assessment of emotional intelligence of tribal adolescence of Udaipur. Study tribal times. 2010; 8(1):37-40.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Resmi Jose, Sujhatha R. A comparative study on emotional maturity among adolescent boys and girls. International journal of nursing education. 2012; 4(2):73-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sharma Bharti. Adjustment and emotional maturity among adolescent boys and girls. International journal of nursing education. 2012; 4 (2):73-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S. L., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. P. Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence. 1995.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Carmen María, Salvador Ferrer,Titular en la. Influence of Emotional Intelligence in Self-Concept. International Journal of Learning & Development.2012; 2(1)13-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Davies. Emotional intelligence in search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.1998; 75(4): 9891015.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Podesta and connie. Self esteem and six second secret. California 2001: Corwin.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Tamra J sillick. Emotional intelligence and self esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E journal of applied psychology: emotional intelligence. 2006; 2(2): 38-48.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Schutte NS,Malouff, JM, Simunek M, Hollander S, McKenley J. Characteristic emotional intelligence and emotional well-being. Cognition and Emotion. 2002; 16:769-86.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Hagerty, Cooper, Golden and Dornheim. Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences.1998; 25: 167-77.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Rosenberg. M society and the adolescent self image. Princeton. NJ: Princeton university press. 1965.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Lourdes Rey1, Natalio Extremera1, Mario Pena. Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents. Psychosocial Intervention. 2011;20(2):227-34  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Country & Chester. Emotional Intelligence and Self-Esteem: The Necessary Ingredients for Success in the classroom. (2005). EDU: 35.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Sameer, B.M. Self-Esteem and Emotional Intelligence among B. Ed Trainees of Tsunami Affected Coastal Belt. 2008.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Iram Abbas. A Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self Esteem: study in universities of Pakistan. Arts and Design Studies.2011; 1: 10-2.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Petrides K.V & Furnham.A. Trait emotional intelligence: behavioral validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European journal of personality. 2003;17: 39-57.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Scutte N.s, Malouff, J.M, Haggerty.D, Cooper.J.T, Golden. C & Dornheim L. Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and individual differences. 1998; 25: 167-68.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Austin, E, J, Saklosfske D.H& Egan V. Personality, wellbeing and health correlates of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual differences. 2005;38:547-58.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Kalyansundaram A. Emotional intelligence of higher secondary pupils in relation to certain selected variables. Education. 2008.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
John Deva Sagyam. J. A study of value system of college student in relation to emotional intelligence. M. Phil, Education, Annamalai university.2009.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Tyagi. Emotional intelligence and adjustment level of adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2004; 31(4): 491-504.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Ghowdhawan, Murugan. Does emotional intelligence predict unique variance in life satisfaction beyond IQ and personality. Personality and Individual Difference. American College Personnel Association. 2009; 38(6): 1353-64.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
S Dalwinder, K Simerjeet, Duraja G. Emotional maturity differentials among university students. Journal of physical education and sports management. 2012; 3(3):41-5.  Back to cited text no. 27
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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