|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 1-3
The level of ego integrity among geriatric population in selected area of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
M Srinivasa Rao1, S Hemalatha2, M Bhagya Lakshmi3, P Sudha Rani4
1 M.Sc Nursing, Department of Mental Health (Psychiatric) Nursing, College of Nursing, SVIMS, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Associate Professor, Department of Mental Health (Psychiatric) Nursing, SVIMS, College of Nursing, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Associate Professor, Department of Mental Health (Psychiatric) Nursing, College of Nursing, SVIMS, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Professor, Department of Community Health Nursing, Principal, College of Nursing, SVIMS, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||17-Jun-2019|
M Srinivasa Rao
M.Sc Nursing, Department of Mental Health (Psychiatric) Nursing, College of Nursing, SVIMS, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Ageing is a natural process and it brings a number of changes in the physical, psychological, hormonal and the social conditions. As the age increases and person reaches to older period get involved with different challenging phases of life. The present study aimed to assess the level of ego integrity among geriatric population(100) in selected area of Tirupati, interviewed by using Modified Ego Integrity Scale.The results shown Ego integrity as 28% was low, 46% had moderate and 26% had high level and there was significant association between age gender occupation and family income at 0.01 level and religion and education at 0.05 level with their level of ego integrity. Conclusion: Keeping in mind the low ego integrity levels instructional material was distributed in order to improve the level of ego integrity.
Keywords: ego integrity, geriatric population
|How to cite this article:|
Rao M S, Hemalatha S, Lakshmi M B, Rani P S. The level of ego integrity among geriatric population in selected area of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Psy Nsg 2016;12:1-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Rao M S, Hemalatha S, Lakshmi M B, Rani P S. The level of ego integrity among geriatric population in selected area of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2016 [cited 2023 Apr 2];12:1-3. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2016/12/1/1/260543
| Introduction|| |
Ageing is a natural process and it brings a number of changes in the physical, psychological, hormonal and the social conditions. The aged become increasingly dependent on others, as they grow their reduced activities, income and consequent decline in position in family and society makes them more vulnerable. Sometimes they feel neglected and humiliated. This may lead to the development of depression.Erikson (1963) studied the influence of social processes on the development of the personality. He described eight stages of the life cycle. Specific task associated with each stage must be completed for resolution of the crisis and for emotional growth to occur. In eighth stage of life (Ego integrity versus despair) between the age of 65 years and death, the goal of every individual is to review their past life and derive meaning from both positive and negative events, while achieving a positive sense of self. Ego integrity is adapting to successful events and disappointments of being and to viewing one’s past life as inevitable appropriate and meaningful.Achievement of the ego integrity results, feel whole, complete and satisfied with their achievements, a sense of self-worth and self-acceptance, accepting that some were achieved and some were not, a sense of dignity from his or her life experiences and not having fear of death.Non achievement of the ego integrity results, a sense of self-contempt and disgust, feels worthless and help-less, anger, depression, loneliness, ideas of suicide, fear of death, thinking about past failures, loss of self-confidence, decreased concern for others and decreased self-identity. Late adulthood should be a time in a person’s life where they feel fulfilled. They can look back on their memories and be happy with the way they have lived their life. Many times elderly are not satisfied and look depressed. So, there is a need to assess the level of ego integrity among the geriatric population.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The objectives of the study were to assess the level of ego integrity among geriatric population and to associate the level of ego integrity with their selected demographic variables. A non – experimental descriptive design was adopted for the study. Non probability convenient sampling technique was used to select 100 subjects from a selected area of Tirupati, those who are having visual impairment and hearing defects and any psychiatric illness were excluded in the study.The tool consists of part-I. Socio demographic data, part –II. Modified Ego Integrity Scale (Ryff&Heincke,1983) with 16 items (9 negative items and 7 positive items) 5 point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).related to ego integrity.The tool was validated by experts in the field of psychiatric nursing and psychiatry and the reliability was assessed by using Karl Pearson product moment split-half method (r= 1). Scores are calculated as follows: a positive item carries the weights of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and negative item is to be scored 5, 4, 3,2 and 1.(seven positive items :1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 15. And nine negative items: 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16.(reverse scoring) were further put in three categories >53=low, 54-67=moderate and 68-80 having high ego integrity.
| Results|| |
[Table 1] shows that 28 % of geriatric population had low level of ego integrity, 46 % had moderate level of ego integrity and 26% had high level of ego integrity.
|Table 1: Distribution of level of ego integrity among geriatric population n=100|
Click here to view
As given in [Table 2]. depicts that among 50 male geriatric population 10 (20%) had low level of ego integrity, 20(40%) had moderate level of ego integrity and 20(40%) had high level of ego integrity. Among 50 female geriatric population 18 (36%) had low level of ego integrity, 26(52%) had moderate level of ego integrity and 6(12%) had high level of ego integrity.
|Table 2: Gender wise Distribution of level of ego integrity among geriatric population n=100|
Click here to view
As given in [Table 3] the mean score of ego integrity among men and women were 77.35 and 71.13, SD=11.828 and 10.631 respectively. The t-value is 2.68 which is significant at 0.01 level.
| Discussion|| |
The discussion of the present study is based on findings obtained from descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of collected data.
The first objective of the study was to assess the level of ego integrity among geriatric population. Among 100 geriatric population 28 % of geriatric population were having low level of ego integrity 46 % were having moderate level of ego integrity and 26% were having high level of ego integrity. In USA in a longitudinal study reported precursors and ego integrity versus despair and results revealed that women who had resolved their regrets at age 53 achieved higher levels of ego integrity at age 62, and those who had resolved their regrets at age 62 also had higher concurrent levels of ego integrity.
The second objective of the study was to associate the level of ego integrity among geriatric population with selected socio demographic variables. The chi-square test revealed that there was a statistically significant association between the level of ego integrity among geriatric population with their age (p=0-003), gender (p=0.005), occupation (p=0.006) and family income (p=0.004) at 0.01 level and religion (p=0.049) and education (p=0.044)at 0.05 level. In Madhya Pradesh the relationship between ego integrity and life satisfaction was assessed among 150 elderly female population and they revealed that female geriatric population was moderately satisfied on the level of ego integrity. Age, education, family, mobility and sensory deprivation is having significant association. In Korea the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics were reported among 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years old. The results showed that there were significant differences between participants’ general characteristics: age(p=0.015), education (p=0.000), religion (p=0.000), housing (p=0.001), hobby (p=0.000), and economic status (p=0.000). In Korea in another study examined the relationship of perceived health status, depression, meaning of life and family function and to ego integrity and to investigate the main factors influencing ego-integrity in community dwelling elders. Results shows that there were significant differences between ego-integrity according to gender (p=0.030), religion(p=0.001), economic level (p=0.021) and amount of spending money. In Korea in another study the differences of the religious activities, faith attitudes, depression and ego-integrity among the aged 60 or older with Christian faith in the Seoul metropolitan areas. The study results showed that first, there were partially differences in religious activities, faith attitudes, depression, and ego-integrity by the elderly’s demographic characteristics such as living type attitude to life (F=8.620, P<0.001), economic status (F=6.761, P<0.001), health status (F=6.932, P<0.001), statistically period in religious life (F=7.610, P<0.001).
| Conclusion|| |
From the findings it revealed that, majority of geriatric population had moderate level of ego integrity. So, counseling and education regarding coping with change, grief and loss, depression, staying connected, senior exercises and fitness, spirituality. They also need assistance to access the schemes available from government to improve their level of ego integrity and adapt to the positive and negative events of their past life and provide good satisfaction regarding their life events.
| References|| |
Saroj SP, Singh CK and Balda S. Psycho-social status of senior citizen and related factors. J Hum Ecol. 2007 22(3): 255-9.
Jare Easter Brook. Elderly Care.4th edition. Macmillon publishers; 2002.
Townsend CM. Psychiatric mental health nursing. Concepts of care in Evidence Based Practice. 6th edition. Philadelphia: F.A Davis Company; 2010: 35,37-38.
Clement I. Psychosocial foundation of nursing. 1st edition. New Delhi:Jaypee Publishers. 2010: 79 - 68.
Cynthia M. Torges, Abigail J. Stewart, Lauren E. Duncan. Achieving ego integrity: Personality development in late midlife. Journal of Research in Personality. March 2008; 42, 1004-1019.
Vinsi MS et al. A Study to Assess the Level of Ego Integrity among Female Geriatric Population in Selected Geographical Areas at Indore City (M.P.) Sch. J.App. Med. Sci., 2014; 2(1A):54-56.
Kyung Hun Han, Yun Jung Lee, at al.psychological factors influencing healthy aging in adults Korea J.Health and Quality of Life Outcomes (2015) 13:31 DOI 10.1186/s12955-015-0225-5.
Chang, Hae-Kyung, Oh, Won-Oak. Factors Influencing Ego-Integrity in Community Dwelling Elders. Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing. January 2011; 18(4).
Sung-Bong Kang Sung-Sook Cho. Effects of Religious Activities and Faith Attitudes on Depression and Ego-Integrity of the Elderly. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association Oct 2013; 13(10). DOI: 10.5392/JKCA.2013.13.10.325.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]