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Table of Contents
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-18

Depressive symptoms among rural population

1 M.A, PGDHOM, MSc (PSY. NSG.), Tutor MMINSR, SKIMS, Srinagar, India
2 Biostatistics, SKIMS, Srinagar, India

Date of Web Publication8-Jul-2019

Correspondence Address:
Perkash Kour
M.A, PGDHOM, MSc (PSY. NSG.), Tutor MMINSR, SKIMS, Srinagar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-1505.165821

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Depression is a disorder of major public health importance, in term of its prevalence and the suffering, dysfunction, morbidity and economic burden. The study aims to assess the prevalence of depression among rural population of selected village. Subjects (N=92) who volunteered to participate in the study were recruited. The research design adopted for the study was descriptive survey design. Depression was assessed by using a self reported depression scale (CES-D). result shown majority of them were between 16 -60 yrs. The overall mean score of depressive affect is 17.04 and it was higher in illiterates. Among the dimensions somatic symptoms has mean score of 19.82 and it was higher in females. In association with demographic characteristics illiterates, females, married, nuclear family, middle class and laborers shows statistically significant association with depressive symptoms. The sudy concludes that prevalence of depression among the rural population is common especially in females, nuclear families and low socio economics due to variety of emotional and physical problems hence there is clear need to increase mental health services and to integrate this with general health services.

Keywords: Chronic pain, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, pain management

How to cite this article:
Kour P, Dar RA. Depressive symptoms among rural population. Indian J Psy Nsg 2017;13:15-8

How to cite this URL:
Kour P, Dar RA. Depressive symptoms among rural population. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2017 [cited 2023 Jun 3];13:15-8. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2017/13/1/15/165821

  Introduction Top

Mental health is generally equated with happiness, satisfaction and normal behavior. It shows ones ways of thinking, adjustment in life, relationship with others and effective functioning in the different roles of daily life. Disturbance of mood characterized by a dull or partial depression syndromes loss of interest pleasure in usual activities and past time with evidence of interference in social/occupational functional[1]. Depression has been described in lay terms “an illness that involves the body, mind and thoughts, that affects the person eats and sleeps, the way one thinks about things. A depression disorder is not a sign of personal weakness, or a condition that can be washed away without treatment symptoms can last for weeks, months, and years. Appropriate treatment can help most people with depression[2]. Depression the most common mental disorder, accounts for 9.7% yrs lived in with disability in the 2010 Global Burden of disease study[3]. Depression is the second most common chronic disorder seen by primary care physicians. On average 12 percent of patients seen in primary care setting with medical or surgical conditions have major depression.[4] There are also huge disparities in access to mental health services particularly for people in rural areas[5]. Depressive symptoms are identified as a mental health problem affecting different population subgroups worldwide. Depressive symptoms have been reported in men, women, elderly people, college students and adolescents and young adults. This indicates that with varying degrees, almost no subgroup is immune to these complaints[6]. World health organization has ranked depression as the fourth among the list of the most urgent health problem world wise and has predicted it to become number two in terms of disease burden by 2020 overriding diabetes, cancer, arthritis etc. The magnitude, suffering and burden in terms of disability and costs for individual families and society are staggering.[7]

  Materials and Methods Top

The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A total of 92 subjects of Tregam village were selected through purposive sampling technique. By random sampling 46 houses were selected. Two adult from each family who volunteered for the study was recruited. Information on socio demographic characteristics (age, sex, education, marital status, type of family, occupation and socio economic status) were collected through interviewer- administered structured questionnaire. In all participant baseline home visit was made. The depression was assessed by using the Radloff, L.S (1977)Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale: This scale was developed to measure symptoms of depression in rural population. It is a self report depression scale; respondents are asked to rate the frequency, over the past week, of 20 symptoms by choosing one of four response categories ranging from “rarely” or “none of the time” to “most or all of time”. Scores range from 0 to 60, with a score of 16 or above indicating impairment. Components of the CES-D are depressed affect, somatic symptoms, positive affect and interpersonal problems. The reliability and validity of the scale have been tested on clinical populations and community samples. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results Top

[Table 1] depicts the socio demographic characteristics of the subjects. Majority of the subjects 69.6% (64) of them belongs to the age of group of 16-40 yrs 67.4 %(62) of the subjects were female, 68.5 %(63) of the subjects were illiterate 59.8%(29) of them were married all of them were living in the rural area and 69.9%(56) hails from nuclear family system and also 59.8%(55) were from middle class and 59.8%(55) were laborer.
Table 1: Demographic characteristic of the subjects N=92

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[Table 2] shows that the depressed affect has higher mean score of 21.38 in females, 23.94 in illiterates, 19.76 in married, 22.15 in nuclear family, 19.76 in middle class & 19.15 in laborers. Somatic symptoms also shows score of 25.42 in females, 30.17 in illiterates, 23.71 in married, 25.14 in nuclear family, 21.85 in middle class and 20.42 in laborers, indicates that there was significant association between females, illiterates, married, nuclear family, middle class and laborers with depressed affect and somatic symptoms.
Table 2: Dimension wise association of depressive affect and somatic symptoms with selected demographic variables N=92

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IPR- inter personal relation, PS - positive symptoms

[Table 3] shows dimension wise distribution of IPR problems& positive symptoms among the subjects. The variables IPR & positive symptoms shows significantly not associated with gender, education, marital status, family status, socio economic status, and occupation.
Table 3: Dimension wise association of inter personal problems and positive symptoms with selected demographic variables N=92

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  Discussion Top

The present study showed that the overall prevalence of depressive affect dimension mean score is 17.04 and the mean score of somatic symptoms dimension is 19.82. The mean depression was significantly associated with females, illiterates, married, nuclear family, lower class, housewives and laborers and The positive symptoms and interpersonal problems was not significantly associated with selected demographic variables. Several studies have been done to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural population. Studies have shown that depression is significantly associated with females, illiterates, lower class, and have higher depression rate in rural population. Almost similar finding were reported by a study on prevalence of depressive symptoms among general population in South India. The findings revealed that the overall prevalence of depression mean score is 21 and it was higher in females. Among the dimensions somatic affect has mean score[8] represented predominent symptoms, followed by depressed affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. The depressive symptoms were associated with gender, age, education, and marital factor[9]. Another epidemiological study conducted at Visakhapatnam among rural population found that prevalence of depression was high in rural population,(36%) females,(37.51) and low socio economic (34%). The study findings correlates to our study.[10] A study reported similar findings that prevalence of depressive symptoms were found in illiterates and low socio economics.[11] The prevalence of depression was significantly higher among population living in rural areas. Rather, rural population contains a higher proportion of persons who have characteristics, such as poor health, which make them vulnerable to depression. Nonetheless, the higher prevalence of depressive symptoms suggests that rural area should receive priority regarding resources for detection of mental health disorders.

  Conclusion Top

Prevalence of depression among the rural population is common especially in females, nuclear families and low socio economics due to variety of emotional and physical problems. Based on this study findings, PHC workers already in place in rural areas, can be educated to look out for depression among rural population and to ensure that up to-date, high quality services are available and proper interventions are required from health care professionals to overcome the problem of depression in rural community. Therefore there is clear need to increase mental health services and to integrate this with general health services.

  References Top

Sadocks & Kaplan. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry.9th Ed. Vol. 2 Wolters Kluwer Publisher: 2009. 377-329.  Back to cited text no. 1
Medicine Net. Com. Depression 2010 from http:/www.medicine net. com/depression| article.html.  Back to cited text no. 2
White HA,. Et.al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance this orders: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study2010. Lancet2013:382:1575-86.  Back to cited text no. 3
Wells KB. Caring for depression. Cambridge. Mass:Harvard University press.1996.  Back to cited text no. 4
Reddy VM. Chandra Shekar C. Prevlence of Mental and Behavioural disorders in India meta –analysis. Indian J Psychiatry 1998; 40:149  Back to cited text no. 5
Parikh RM, et.al. Depression in college student in Bombay. Program and abstracts of the American Psychiatric Association 2001 Annual meeting: May 5-10. New Orieans Louisiana  Back to cited text no. 6
WHO-CHOICE. Cost effectiveness of interventions for reducing the burden of mental disorders: A global analysis (WHO-CHOICE) GPE Discussion paper (prepared by Chisholam D), Geneva, World Health Organization. 2003  Back to cited text no. 7
Redloff,L.S. The CES-D Scale: A self –report depression scale for research in the general population: Applied psychological measurement. 1977 :1, 385-401.  Back to cited text no. 8
Jothimani J. PadmavathiN. Ramachandra. Nagarajaiah, Mariamma. Depression in a village of rural South India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Nsg. 2012):178/91-92  Back to cited text no. 9
Sundra Manju. Goru Krish Epidemiological study of depression among Population in Visakhapatnam,India Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013 : 2(3): 695-702  Back to cited text no. 10
Kaaren Mathias. Isabel. Michelle Kermode. Miquel San Sebastian BMJ open 5; e008992 doi.10.1136 bmj open-2015  Back to cited text no. 11


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

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