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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 19-23

Assertive behaviour and self esteem among adolescent girls


Assistant Professor, Galgotias University

Date of Web Publication8-Jul-2019

Correspondence Address:
Sonia Rani
Assistant Professor, Galgotias University

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-1505.262340

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  Abstract 


As adolescent health has become an increasingly important focus for governments, foundations, and behavioral researchers in contrast to other age groups. Mortality and morbidity rates for 10-25 year olds have been increasing in the past few decades. Self esteem is the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness and life satisfaction but it is estimated that up to a half of adolescents will struggle with low self esteem and research had shown that, teens self esteem levels drop markedly in girls more than boys. To study the effectiveness of assertiveness training on self esteem and assertive behavior among adolescent girls of selected government schools, investigator developed a conceptual framework based on the Nola Pander's Health Promotion Model. The research approach adopted for the present study is a quantitative approach and the design selected was a quasi-experimental design (non equivalent pre test post test control group). Purposive sampling technique used to gather 40 adolescent girls in experimental and control group each. Data collected using socio-demographic variables and with standardized Rosenberg self esteem scale (r=0.94) and Rathus assertiveness schedule(r=0.732). Assertiveness training given for 5 days and post test-1 done after 15 days. Then the investigator administered the same intervention to the wait list control group. Post test-2 in experimental group assessed after two months of intervention. The mean post test-1 self esteem score in experimental group was 20.78 as compared with the mean post test self esteem score in control group was 13.55. The mean difference found was 7.225. Secondly, considering for assertive behavior mean post test-1 score in experimental group was 23.28 as compared with mean post test assertive behavior score in control group - 4.23 and the mean difference shown 27.5. While comparing the post test-1 and post test-2 in experimental group, both self esteem and assertive behavior increased a little. It is concluded that the assertiveness training is effective in building the level of self esteem as well as improving the assertive behavior among adolescent girls and the findings also reveals that it improve while time progress.

Keywords: Assertiveness training, self esteem, assertive behavior, adolescent girls, wait-list control group, selected government schools.


How to cite this article:
Rani S. Assertive behaviour and self esteem among adolescent girls. Indian J Psy Nsg 2017;13:19-23

How to cite this URL:
Rani S. Assertive behaviour and self esteem among adolescent girls. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Oct 26];13:19-23. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2017/13/1/19/262340




  Introduction Top


Adolescence is a word comes from Latin word which means “to grow up” and is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development. According to Erik Erikson's stages of human development, an adolescent is generally a person between the ages of 13 and 19.[1] Braden N (1969) briefly defined Self esteem as the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness.[2] Alberti, Emmon define Assertive behaviour is the behaviour which enables the people act upon his own best interest and to stand up for himself without undue anxiety and to express his honest feeling comfortably or to exercise his own rights without denying the rights of others.[3]

Assertiveness Training (AT) was introduced by Andrew Salter (1961) and popularized by Joseph Wolpe[4] Fensterheim, Baer (1975) revealed that there is a positive relationship between assertiveness and self esteem. Rotheram (1987) indicated that there was a significant positive correlation among self esteem, assertiveness and interpersonal problem solving ability.[5]

Morganett (1990) told that the group-based intervention programs are beneficial especially for adolescents Counseling groups provide an atmosphere of acceptance, encouragement and safe experimentation for new behaviors.[6] Gazda (1989) reveals that peers strongly influence the young adolescent group counseling enhances the possibility that youths will attempt new behaviors[7]


  Material and Methods Top


Study was conducted with following objectives

  1. To assess the level of self esteem before and after the assertive training programme among adolescent girls in experimental and control group.
  2. To assess the level of assertive behaviour before and after the assertive training programme among adolescent girls in experimental and control group.
  3. To compare the post test level of self esteem and level of assertive behaviour among adolescent girls in between experimental and control group.
  4. To find out the association between mean difference of the level of self esteem and assertive behaviour among adolescent girls with their selected socio demographic variables in experimental and control group.


A quasi-experimental design (non equivalent control group pre test-posttest design) was used, experimental and control groups are selected without randomization. The sample size considered for the present study 80 adolescent girls (40 experimental and 40 control group) studying in government senior secondary schools of Rajakheri and Chhajpur of district Panipat, Haryana by using power analysis and purposive sampling technique. The tool used in the study was standardized tool to assess the self esteem and assertive behavior the tools were Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale-It is a standardized tool for assessing the self esteem. It contain 10 item of seeking to know the self esteem in which 5 positive and 5 negative statements are distributed random. The item was measured on a 4 point rating scale ranging from “‘strongly agree to strongly disagree. Another tool was Rathus assertiveness schedule-It is a standardized tool for assessing assertive behaviour. It consists of 30 items to know the assertive behavior among adolescent girls. The items were measured on a 6 point rating scale ranging from “Always” to “Never”. Karl Pearson's correlation co-efficient was used to check the reliability quotient of the Rosenberg self esteem tool was (r= 0.94) tool is found highly reliable, and for the Rathus assertiveness schedule reliability quotient (r=0.732). Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the data.


  Results Top


Section-i: Description of Study Participants

Demographic variables of sample revealed that in Experimental group majority of adolescent girls were in the age group 15-16 years 26 (65%), and were Hindus 39 (97.5%) and their fathers having secondary education 14 (35%),and their mothers were non-literate 14 (35%) respectively according to mother's educational status, were self employed 17 (42.5%) respectively according to father's occupation, and their Mothers were housewife 38 (95%), and having Rs.5000- 10000/month 26 (65%) Family income per month. Maximum of them were residing in rural area 36(90%) and were coming from nuclear family 25 (62.5%) and no one having previous exposure to assertiveness training programme.

Where as in Control Group majority of samples, were both in the age group 13 -14 and 15-16 years 15 (37.5%) and were Hindus 39(97.5%) and, were having secondary education 20 (50%)) respectively according to father's educational status, were non-literate 22 (55%) respectively according to mother's educational status, were self employed 15 (37.5%) according to father's occupation, their mother were housewife 37 (92.5%), were having 5000-1000/month 35 (87.5%) family income per month, were residing in rural area 39 (97.5%) and coming from nuclear family 26 (65%) and not attended previously any assertiveness training programme. Both the group found homogenous as homogeneity calculated by chi square test.

Section II - Testing of Hypotheses

Objective 1: To assess the level of self esteem before and after the assertive training programme among adolescent girls in experimental and control group.

[Table 1], reveals that in pretest experimental group and control group, majority of the adolescent girls 39 (97.5%) and 34 (85%) were having average level of self esteem. No girls falls in the category of good level of self esteem. Where as in post test experimental group, maximum number of the adolescent girls 24(60%) were having good level of self esteem but In post test control group, majority of the adolescent girls 39 (97.5%) were having average level of self esteem
Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of pretest and post test level of self esteem among adolescent's girls in experimental and control group. (N=80)

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Objective 2: To assess the level of assertive behavior before and after the assertive training programme among adolescent girls in experimental and control group.

[Table 2], shows that in pre test experimental group,majority of the adolescent girls 22 (55%) were Situationally non-assertive as compared with 11 (27.5%) and 7(17.5%) adolescent girls with Somewhat assertive and Very non assertive respectively. No adolescent girls were showing assertive and Probably aggressive. In pretest control group, maximum adolescent girls 18(45%) were Somewhat assertive followed by 12(30%) and 9(22.5%) adolescent girls having Situationally non assertive and Very non assertive respectively. It is interstingly to infirmed that,1(2.5%) adolescent girls was having assertive behaviour and no one falls in the probably aggressive category.
Table 2: Frequency and percentage distribution of pre test level of assertive behavior among adolescents girls in experimental and control group. (N=80)

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Figure 1: Frequency percentage distribution of post test level of assertive behaviour score in both the groups.

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In post test experimental group, after assertiveness training programme majority of the adolescent girls 28 (70%) were Assertive and 12 (30%) adolescent girls were somewhat assertive. In post test control group, the more number of adolescent girls19 (47.5%) were Somewhat assertive, 12(30%) were Situationally non assertive 8(20.%) respectively. Aggressive behaviour in post test control group remains almost same as seen in pretest.

Objective 3: To compare the post test level of self esteem and level of assertive behaviour among adolescent girls in between experimental and control group.

[Table 3], iilustrates that in experimental group, the mean post test level of self esteem 20.78 is higher than the mean post test level of self esteem score 13.55 in control group and the mean difference shown is 7.225 and the obtained ‘t’ value is 10.888 (p= 0.000).
Table 3: Comparison of the post test mean level of self esteem and assertive behaviour scores among adolescents girl in experimental and control group. (N=80)

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Next for assertive behaviour in experimental group, the mean post test level was 23.28 is higher than the post test level of assertive behaviour -4.23 in control group. The mean difference shown is 27.500 and the obtained ‘t’ value is 10.187 (p= 0.000) and found to be stastically significant at 5% level of significance.

Therefore the post test level of self esteem and assertive behaviour of experimental group is significantly higher than the control group, the assertiveness training programme was effective to build self esteem and improve the assertive behaviour of adolescent girls.

Hence, H1 and H2 is accepted and H0 Rejected.

[Table 4], shows the comparision of the mean level of self esteem and assertive behaviour score between post test 1 and post test 2 among girls in experimental group.
Table 4: Comparison of the mean level of self esteem and assertive behaviour scores between post test 1 and post test 2 among adolescents girls in experimental group (N=80)

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The mean level of self esteem score in both post test 1 and post test 2 are 20.78 and 21.20 respectively. The mean difference is 0.425 and the obtained ‘t’ value is 1.681(p=1.1009). It is found stastically not significant at 5% level of significance.

The mean level of assertive behaviour score in both post test 1 and post 2 are 23.28 and 23.98 respectively. The mean difference is 0.700 and the obtained ‘t’ value is 2.014 (p=0.0509)

Eventhough the result is not significant, a small increase of mean level of self esteem and assertive behaviour score in post test 2 according to post test 1 shows the gradual building up of self esteem and the assertive behaviour among adolescent girls is consolidating while time progress.

Objective 4 :- To find out the association between the mean difference of level of self esteem and level of assertive behaviour among adolescent girls with their selected socio demographic variables in experimental and control group.

In pretest level of self esteem score selected socio demographic variables father's occupation, mother's occupation, family income per month the ‘t’ value is 4.708, 6.425, 3.871 respectively. Hence they are found statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance.

In pretest level of assertive behaviour score the selected socio demographic variables socio-demographic variable religion have the ‘t’ value 2.213 respectively and was found statistically significant at same 5% level of significance.

[Table 5], depicts that age, father's occupation were significantly associated with the pretest level of self esteem score in control group but no variable was significantly associated with pretest level of assertiveness behavior in same group.
Table 5: Association of pretest level of self esteem score with selected socio demographic variables among adolescent girls in control group. (N=80)

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  Discussion Top


The results of this study indicated the self esteem and assertive behavior after the assertiveness training programme had a significant positive effect and this is consistent with the previous findings that indicated assertiveness training programme had a significant effect on experimental group. In support of the pretest level of self esteem Nagar S, Sharma S, Chopra G, (2008) conducted a study on self esteem on 112 adolescent girls in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh.[8] The findings of the study is supported by Mahmoud S, Hamid RA (2013) to determine the effectiveness of assertiveness training on self esteem and assertiveness in adolescent girls of secondary school, which is a quasi- experimental study and used the tool Rosenberg self esteem Scale and assertiveness inventory[9]

Another study which supports the present study was conducted by Tannous, Adel G, Alkhawaldeh, Mohammad K (2011) to assess the effect of assertiveness training in improving self esteem and shows that there was a significant difference in favour of experimental group on self esteem[10] Rezan A, Ero C, Zengel M (2009) to assess the effectiveness of an assertiveness training prograame on adolescent girls assertive level, which was also a quasi experimental study where, they used the Rathus assertiveness schedule as tool and the ANCOVA analysis results have shown that assertiveness training was effective on adolescents assertive level.[11]


  Conclusion Top


It is concluded that the assertiveness training is effective in building the level of self esteem as well as improving the assertive behavior among adolescent girls and the findings also reveals that it improve while time progress



 
  References Top

1.
Erikson. E. Lecture Notes Ego Psychologist. Available from: www.psychology.sunysb.edu”PSY345s,  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Braden N. The psychology of self esteem: A revolutionary approach to self understanding that launched a new era in modern psychology. 2nd ed. C.B.S publication : 2001  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Alberta R, Emmons. Your Perfect Right Available from: Assertiveness:.en.m.wikipedia.org/wild/assertiveness  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Eddington. N. Assertiveness Training Programme. [online 2009] [cited 2014 Dec] Available from: www.cognitivebehaviortherapy.co.uk  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ingles. Interpersonal difficulties in adolescence: A new self report measures, European journal of psychological assessment. Dec. 2005, 2(1): p.11-22.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Morganett RS. Skills for living group counselling activities for young Adolescents, 2nd ed. Research press, Iiilinosis USA, 1990.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gazda G.M. Group counselling a development Approach, 4th ed. Boston,1989.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Nagar S, Sharma S, Chopra G. A self esteem among rural adolescent girls in kangra district of Himachal Pradesh.,2007,[online 2008 10(2):p.151-54. Available from: URL:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02088725?LI=true  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Mahmoud S, Hamid RA. Effectiveness of assertiveness training programme on self esteem& academic achievement in adolescents girls at secondary school at Abha city. Journal of American Science July 2013;9(8):p.262-269]. Available from: (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Tannous, Adel G,Alkhawaldeh, Mohammadn K. Effectiveness of Assertiveness training in improving self esteem and adjustment among victims of bullying students. Journal of Educational sciences (publisher university of jordan) Sep. 2014 supplement 1, vol.41 :p. 421-44.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Rezan.A, Ero.C, Zengel ul Mustafa. The effectiveness of an assertiveness programme on adolescents’ assertive level. Elementary education [Online 2009],8(2):p 485-92. [cited 2014]. Available from: http://ilkogretimonline.org.tr/vol8say2 /v8s2m17.pdf  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Material and Methods
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