• Users Online: 322
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 
Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 60-63

Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude toward Mental Illness among Rural Adults: A Correlation Study


1 Department of Mental Health Nursing, Shri K L Shastri College of Nursing, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Mental Health Nursing, Government State College of Nursing, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission28-May-2020
Date of Decision03-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance29-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication08-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Kamlesh Dixit
State College of Nursing, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_13_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Introduction: Mental illness has always been associated with ignorance and superstitions. Although mental illness is a global health issue, the world community has little knowledge about mental disorders. Improving the knowledge and attitude of the global population is vital to reduce stigma and various other key concerns related to mental illness. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitude regarding mental illness among adults in a rural area of Dehradun. Methodology: The present study was conducted with a quantitative descriptive approach. The study was conducted at Mothrowala community, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. The population of the current study comprised 100 adults, both males and females, who are at the age group of 20–30 years, from the selected rural community. The participants were selected by nonprobability purposive sampling technique for this study. A self-structured questionnaire on the demographic profile, knowledge, and attitude about mental illness was distributed. Results: The study revealed that nearly two-third adults had moderately adequate knowledge. The majority of participants (95%) have a positive attitude toward mental illness. This study also revealed that there was a significant positive correlation (p-value-0.0001) between knowledge and attitude of adults toward mental illness. Likewise, there was a significant association between the marital status and knowledge of adults, whereas levels of attitude have a significant association with educational status, religion, and sensitization program. Conclusion: Findings of this research study suggested that knowledge and attitude of rural adults have a significant correlation regarding mental illness. In addition, knowledge and attitudes of the community are partially associated with their selected demographic variables. Furthermore, adequate knowledge and positive attitude are key for mentally healthy communities.

Keywords: Attitude, knowledge, mental illness, rural adults


How to cite this article:
Chand P, Dixit K. Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude toward Mental Illness among Rural Adults: A Correlation Study. Indian J Psy Nsg 2020;17:60-3

How to cite this URL:
Chand P, Dixit K. Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude toward Mental Illness among Rural Adults: A Correlation Study. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Sep 21];17:60-3. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2020/17/2/60/308825




  Introduction Top


Mental health is a positive state in which one is responsible for self-awareness, self-directive, reasonable worry free, and copes with usual daily stress. A mental illness or mental disorder is a psychological or behavioral pattern associated with subjective distress or disability that occurs in an individual and which is not a part of normal development or culture.[1],[2] Mental health is being recognized as one of the precedence areas in health policies worldwide.[3] As estimated by the World Health Organization, mental illness is prevalent in about 25% of the world population in both developed and developing countries.[4] Mental illnesses are among the most stigmatizing conditions worldwide. The costs of the society are enormous and at least partly a result of the stigma attached to mental disorders.[5] Mental disorders can cause a great deal of suffering to those afflicted with such disorders and can also be a source of burden to the families, friends, and caretakers of those afflicted.

In fact, mental disorders such as depression fall among the top leading causes of the global disease burden. Moreover, it is estimated that the proportion contributed by mental disorders to the total global disease burden will increase from 10.5% in 1990 to 15% in 2020.[6] The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that, in 2002, 154 million people globally suffered from depression, 25 million people from schizophrenia, 91 million people from alcohol-use disorders, and 15 million from drug-use disorders.[7]

A mentally ill person loses his ability to respond according to the expectation he has for himself and the demands that society has for him. In the global scenario, the prevalence of mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia is 22·1% in the conflict-affected populations. The morbidity-adjusted, age-standardized point prevalence for severe disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe depression, severe anxiety, and severe posttraumatic stress disorder was 5·1%.[3] The WHO communicated that by 2030, depression will be the key of the global burden of disease. In India, the prevalence of depression is high in both urban and rural areas. India has a vast range of demographic profile, so the prevalence is varying in different populations.[8] Persons with mental illness are largely neglected and surrounded by misunderstanding and stigmatizing attitude in the society.[9] Evidence from the WHO suggests that nearly half of the world's population are affected by mental illness with an impact on their self-esteem, relationships, and ability to function in everyday life.[10] Mental disorders have been found to be relatively common, with more than one in three people in most countries. A WHO global survey indicates that anxiety disorders are the most common in all countries, followed by mood disorders in all countries, while substance disorders and impulse control disorders were consistently less prevalent.[11] Mental health is also associated with gender. Around 20% of women are affected by maternal mental health problems. These problems have negative effects on their health and family. The prevalence of mental illness may be different in some populations.[12] The knowledge and attitude toward mental illness is key for every age group. In India, majority of the population is adult and residing in rural communities. It is important to study the knowledge and attitude in the rural community regarding mental illness, which helps in improving awareness about mental illness and available mental health-care services for the community.

Objectives of the study

  • To assess and correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding mental illness among adults in a rural area of Dehradun
  • To associate the findings of knowledge and attitude with selected demographic variables among adults in a rural area of Dehradun toward mental illness.


Hypothesis of the study

  • H1 – There will be a significant correlation between mean knowledge score and mean attitude score of rural adults toward mental illness at 0.05 level of significance
  • H2: – There will be a significant association among knowledge scores, attitude scores, and selected demographic variables of rural adults toward mental illness at 0.05 level of significance.



  Methodology Top


The study was conducted with a view to assessing the knowledge and attitude among adults residing in the rural community area. The investigator has employed the quantitative research approach. The descriptive research design was selected to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding mental illness among adults from a selected community in Dehradun district. The population of the current study comprised 100 adults, both males and females, who were between 20 and 30 years of age. The participants were selected by nonprobability purposive sampling technique for this study. In the present study, the researcher used three different tools including demographic pro forma to collect the baseline data, self-structured questionnaire to assess the knowledge regarding mental illness, and Likert scale (5-point) to assess the attitude to collect the data regarding mental illness among the adults. Ethical permission was taken from the ethical committee, and well-informed written consents were taken from the participants. Anonymity and confidentiality of the participants was maintained while carrying out the study.


  Results Top


as per [Table 1], of 100 participants, the majority of adults were between 20 and 25 years (55%) and (45%) from the age group of 26–30 years. In this study, male and female participants were 60% and 40%, respectively. Half of the participants were married. Major proportion (55%) of the adults was unemployed, whereas about 45% of adults were employed. Furthermore, findings related to educational qualifications of the adults revealed that the proportion of the adults (47%) studied up to the secondary level, while only 31% of adults had completed their primary education. Most of the participants (92%) have not attended any sensitization program about mental illness. [Table 2] highlighted that most of the adults (62%) had moderately adequate knowledge, while 37% of adults had inadequate knowledge; however, only 1% had adequate knowledge. In addition, assessment of the attitude toward mental illness communicated that 95% of rural adults had a positive attitude toward mental illness. In contrast, only 5% of adults had a negative attitude toward mental illness. The results of this study also communicated that there was a significant positive correlation (0.0001*) between knowledge and attitude of adults toward mental illness. In addition, as per [Table 3], there was a significant association between the marital status and knowledge of adults. Moreover, the attitude scores of the population have a significant association with their demographic variables such as educational status, religion, and sensitization program.
Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of adults depending on their demographic variables (n=100)

Click here to view
Table 2: Distribution of knowledge scores and attitude scores regarding mental illness (n=100)

Click here to view
Table 3: Association among knowledge scores and attitude scores regarding mental illness (n=100)

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Mental illness has always been associated with ignorance, superstitions, and human beliefs.[13] A person with mental illness not only becomes a burden of the society but also at the same time becomes a problem for the society.[14] Knowledge and positive attitude is necessary toward mental illness among people. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the knowledge and attitude about mental illness among adults from the rural community of Dehradun. The present study revealed that majority of the adults (62%) have moderately adequate knowledge and 95% have positive attitude toward mental illness. The above findings are supported by the findings of the study conducted by Neog and Saikia to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding mental illness among 200 college students. The authors revealed that 73% of participants had adequate knowledge regarding mental illness and 77% had moderate attitude regarding mental illness.[15] Arun et al. conducted a study among youths in Delhi regarding awareness of mental disorders. The study findings highlighted that youth have adequate knowledge toward mental disorders.[1] Buttise also revealed that 66% of participants have moderate level knowledge and 97.5% had a favorable attitude toward mental illness.[16] In the present study, mostly people (95%) have a positive attitude toward mental illness. Ranjitkumar et al. illustrated that 90% of participants have a positive attitude toward mental illness.[17] Results demonstrated by these research studies remained consistent with this study. We also communicated that there was a moderate positive correlation (P < 0.001) between knowledge and attitude of adults toward mental illness that is higher the knowledge score, better is the attitude score of adults residing in rural area. Similar findings were reported by Neog and Saikia,[15] Buttise,[16] and Ranjitkumar P et al.[18] that knowledge has a significant positive correlation with attitude regarding mental illness. Association analysis highlighted that only marital status has a significant association with knowledge about mental illness; however, there was no study available to support the current finding. The present study also revealed that attitude toward mental illness has a significant association with religion, educational status, and sensitization program. This result is consistent with some previous studies[15],[16],[17],[18],[19] regarding mental illness. Pertaining to this study, knowledge of the participants is independent but attitude has partially depended on demographic variables. Attitudes are learned throughout one's life span and may merge emotions and knowledge. It is unremarkably predicted that attitudes have an effect on behavior, but the relationship is complex.[20] Sound knowledge and positive attitude toward mental illness are necessary among the population. It is also effective in mental development of the adults. Mental health assessment may helpful in minimizing the disease burden of mental illness.


  Conclusion Top


The findings of this study highlighted that most of the adults have adequate knowledge and positive attitude toward mental illness. The knowledge of the population did not associate with demographic variables. However, attitude of the population was partially associated with their selected demographic variables. Mental health literacy among the general population is necessary for the effective promotion of community mental health.

Limitation

The study was conducted with a small sample size.

Acknowledgment

Researchers would like to acknowledge the Ethical Committee, the Principal, and Faculty members of State College of Nursing and all the study participants for their consistent support.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Arun D, Sandhya G, Kamlesh SK, Rakesh CK. Awareness of mental disorders among youth in Delhi. Curr Med Res Practice 2017;7:84-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Desai ND, Chavda PD. Attitudes of undergraduate medical students towards mental illness and psychiatry. J Educ Health Promot 2018;7:50.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Charlson F, van Ommeren M, Flaxman A, Cornett J, Whiteford H, Saxena S. New WHO prevalence estimates of mental disorders in conflict settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2019;394:240-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Abolfotouh MA, Almutairi AF, Almutairi Z, Salam M, Alhashem A, Adlan AA, et al. Attitudes toward mental illness, mentally ill persons, and help-seeking among the Saudi public and sociodemographic correlates. Psychol Res Behav Manag 2019;12:45-54.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sartorius N. Stigma and mental health. Lancet 2007;370:810-1.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Dandona L. The burden of mental disorders across the states of India: The global burden of disease study 1990-2017. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7:148-61.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Murthy RS. National Mental Health Survey of India 2015-2016. Indian J Psychiatry 2017;59:21-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
8.
Pareek S, Kaushik N. Depression as co-morbidity among diabetes patients in India: An increasing disease burden. Indian J Surg Nurs 2018;7:75-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gabra RH, Ebrahim OS, Osman DM, Ghada ST. Knowledge, attitude and health-seeking behavior among family caregivers of mentally ill patients at Assiut University Hospitals: A cross-sectional study. Middle East Curr Psychiatry 2020;27:10.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Alexander IM, Johnson Mallard V, Kostas Polston E, Ingram C. Nancy fugate woods. In: Women's Health Care in Advanced Practice Nursing. 2 ed. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Celine TM, Antony J. A study on mental disorders: 5-year retrospective study. J Family Med Prim Care 2014;3:12-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
12.
Gupta S. Maternal mental health and role of nurse. Indian J Psy Nsg 2019;16:49-51.  Back to cited text no. 12
  [Full text]  
13.
Sneha CR, Reddy MM, Nongmeikapam M, Narayana JS. Awareness and attitude toward mental illness among a rural population in Kolar. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2019;35:69-74.  Back to cited text no. 13
  [Full text]  
14.
Basu R, Sau A, Saha S, Mondal S, Ghoshal PK, Kundu S. A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding mental health illnesses in Amdanga block, West Bengal. Indian J Public Health 2017;61:169-73.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
15.
Neog M, Saikia MK. Knowledge and attitude towards mental illness-a comparative study among rural and urban college students. Int J Health Res Med Legal Pract 2017;3:69-72.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Buttise M. A study to assess knowledge and attitude about mental illness among peoples residing in Adgaon village. Int J Sci Res. 2020;9:415-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Ranjitkumar P, Padma V, Raju NN. A comparative study on attitudes towards mental illness. AP J Psychol Med 2010;11:23-5.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Longkumer I, Indranee PB. Knowledge about and attitudes toward mental disorders among Nagas in North East India. IOSR J Humanities Soc Sci 2013;15:41-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
More VP, Jadhav PB, Puranik R, Shinde VS, Pakhale S. Study of knowledge and attitude concerning mental illness in adults. Int J Health Sci Res 2012;2:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Solanki CK, Shah HM, Vankar GK, Parikh MN. Attitude toward mental illnesses among paramedical professionals and junior doctors. Ann Indian Psychiatry 2017;1:102-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
  [Full text]  



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methodology
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed959    
    Printed30    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded125    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal