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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 79-83

A Study to Assess the Level of Knowledge of Cannabis Use Disorder among Adolescents


Department of Psychiatric Nursing, College of Nursing, AFMC, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission04-Jun-2020
Date of Decision02-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance03-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication08-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Mrs. Tanushree Mitra
Department of Psychiatric Nursing, College of Nursing, AFMC, Pune, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_12_20

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  Abstract 


Background: Adolescents are exploring in nature. Their natural tendency to seek pleasure through experiments and exploration makes them more vulnerable. The problem of cannabis use emerged in a great way as it was thought of harmless and recreational drugs for a long time. The present study explored the knowledge level of adolescents regarding cannabis use disorder which was not explored much. Method: A Cross-sectional Descriptive study, conducted among school going urban adolescents in selected schools of western Maharashtra during October -December 2018. The study was conducted among 259 adolescents. The knowledge regarding cannabis use disorder was assessed by self- administered questionnaire of 20 items along with the relevant socio-demographic and substance use related data. Results: The study revealed that most of the samples (82.63%) had average level of knowledge, few of the samples (17.37%) had poor knowledge and nil had good level of knowledge of cannabis use disorder. There was statistically significant association between the knowledge score and the sex(0.013), level of education (0.003) and the monthly family income(0.019). Conclusion: Most of the adolescents either had average or poor knowledge of cannabis use disorder. A module needs to be developed and disseminated among adolescents to increase their knowledge level and awareness. Involvement of parents and school teachers were suggested.

Keywords: Adolescents, cannabis use disorder, level of knowledge, Maharashtra


How to cite this article:
Mitra T, Sharma PA, Das R, Gopal S. A Study to Assess the Level of Knowledge of Cannabis Use Disorder among Adolescents. Indian J Psy Nsg 2020;17:79-83

How to cite this URL:
Mitra T, Sharma PA, Das R, Gopal S. A Study to Assess the Level of Knowledge of Cannabis Use Disorder among Adolescents. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 28];17:79-83. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2020/17/2/79/308824




  Introduction Top


Today's adolescents have tremendous opportunities for physical, mental, and emotional growth because of the advanced technologies, global exposure, and greater cultural exchange.[1] Adolescents face a number of problems both physical and psychological during this period. Every change comes with its own limitations and dangers. The adolescents may adopt certain coping skills to deal with these changes or may go into dark alleys of substance use and many other risk-taking behavior. They are particularly vulnerable to mental distress and illness during this period.[1] Adolescents are spending most of their day on the Internet – experiencing cyber-crimes, cyber bullying, and playing violent video games. The chance of getting influenced and swayed away toward more exciting and short-time pleasurable acts attracts them more due to their risk-taking behavior and experimental nature.

Addiction of any kind is like a layer of rust on the progress, prosperity, and development of today's adolescents. Although substance abuse is prevalent among all ages, more prominently, it has spread its root among adolescents. The addiction of tobacco, caffeine, and alcohol is much more common due to its availability, cultural sanction, and wide social acceptance across the world.[2] It is surprisingly noticed that adolescents are gradually adopting more experimental and exotic resources as substance. Cannabis or marijuana is one of such substances, which is presently used more frequently by adolescents to the extent of a disorder and thus curbing their growth and development. The present study was conducted with the objectives to assess the knowledge of cannabis use disorder among adolescents of 15–18 years of age group in the selected schools of Maharashtra and to associate selected sociodemographic variables with the knowledge score.

Background of the study

Substance abuse among adolescents is a cause of concern as it is associated with risk of accidents, violence, and high-risk sexual behavior.[2] Recreational cannabis use was introduced to the US in 1930s from Mexico and spread through Jazz musicians to the other parts of US, and spread to the youth population in late 1960s. Its use was disseminated to international youth culture via US movies, music, and media.[3] According to the world drug report released by the Unite Nations office on drug and crime 2016, about 183 million people have been estimated to use cannabis with the prevalence of 3.8% of the population aged 15–64 years.[4] Studies done on effectiveness of psychoeducation module as a part of motivational intervention and cognitive therapy had a positive effect on adolescent's abstinence from the substances;[5] hence, the present study has selected psycho-educative module as a preventive measure to affect the knowledge among adolescent regarding harmful use of cannabis, it's effect on work, cognition, social function, and productivity in a long run. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug reveals that among the adolescents under treatment for substance use disorder, cannabis use disorder is more common in 12–17 years of age group.[2] Thus, the knowledge of cannabis and its harmful effect will help the adolescents in understanding the cannabis-related problems and it can prevent future intake of cannabis by them. Today's focus of psychiatric nursing is not limited to clinical setting rather it has been extended to community settings and covers wide range of preventive services. As a psychiatric mental health nurse promotion of mental health and prevention of mental health problems are at high priority level. Knowledge regarding substance use disorder in general and particularly about cannabis use disorder will prevent a great number of adolescents to step in the darkness of illicit drugs and substances use problems.


  Materials and Methods Top


The researcher adopted a cross-sectional, descriptive study design conducted in the month of October–December 2018 in the selected schools of Maharashtra. The study was conducted among adolescents of 15–18 years of age group. Calculated sample size was 200 adolescents; however, considering the attrition rate total 259 sample were included in the study by simple random sampling. The knowledge regarding cannabis use disorder was assessed by self-administered questionnaire included 20 items as standardized tool was not available. Selected sociodemographic data were also collected. The tool validity done by expert opinion and reliability was checked by the test-retest method. Total time assigned for the test administration was 15 min. Total knowledge score was 20 and level of knowledge score was categorized in poor (<6), average (7–13), and good (14–20) knowledge score. Institutional permission was obtained, and informed consent of parents and assent of adolescents were obtained before the study. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee. The study was also registered in clinical trial registry-India.


  Results Top


Data analysis was done by the descriptive analysis, i.e., percentage and mean value. The association of sociodemographic variables and knowledge score was done by the analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney Z-test.

[Table 1] included data regarding the relevant sociodemography of the samples which was included in the study and [Table 2] included the substance use related and source of information related data. The level of knowledge regarding cannabis use disorder has been assessed by a self-administered questionnaire among adolescents reveals that most of the adolescents have poor knowledge level (knowledge score 6–10) and few of them had average knowledge level (11–14) None of the adolescents had good knowledge regarding cannabis use disorder [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Level of knowledge of adolescents regarding cannabis use disorder

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Table 1: Distribution of sample as per sociodemographic variables (n=259)

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Table 2: Distribution of sample as per substance use related data

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[Table 3] and [Table 4] presented the association of level of knowledge with gender, level of education, and family income which is found to be statistically significant at P level (0.013), (0.003) and (0.019), respectively.
Table 3: Association of level of knowledge of cannabis use disorder with gender of sample (n=259)

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Table 4: Association of level of knowledge of cannabis use disorder with selected variables (n=259)

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There was no statistically significant association found between the knowledge score and the types of family, substance use among the sample, previous knowledge of cannabis use, and education level of mother and father in the study.


  Discussion Top


The present study focussed on the assessment of the knowledge level regarding cannabis use disorder and the harmful effect of cannabis among adolescents of 15–18 years of age group. The tool for the study was a semi-structured questionnaire of 20 items developed by the researcher and validated by various experts along with the items of relevant sociodemographic data and substance use-related information. The study revealed that most of the adolescents (82.63%) have average knowledge about the harmful effects of cannabis and cannabis use disorder. Some of the sample (18.37%) had poor knowledge level, and none of the sample had good knowledge in the present study. The similar study was conducted among adolescents by Mariappan[6] regarding the knowledge of addiction, used the similar scale of level of knowledge (below 50% – poor, 50%–75% – average, and <75% – Good level of knowledge). The findings of the study are in contrast with the present study as most of their sample had poor knowledge (87.5%), and few of them (12.5%) had average knowledge level; however, none of the sample had good knowledge level which is similar to the present study. The study of Goswami et al.[7] also assessed the knowledge level of adolescent students of alcohol use revealed that the few of the adolescents had average knowledge score (26.37%) and most of them had inadequate knowledge (73.62%) and none of the them had adequate knowledge score. The male participants were more (65%) in the same study as compared to female which is similar in the present study (54.83%).

The association of relevant sociodemographic data with knowledge score analyzed in the present study are similar to the study done by Kumar and Huidrom[8] included age, sex, type of family, previous information, exposure, and family income; however, the present study got the statistically significant association with level of education, family income, and sex which is incongruent with the above-mentioned study.

Another similar study of Snehalatha et al.[9] done with the objective of assessing the knowledge level of adolescents about alcohol use supported the present study findings as most of the sample (40%) had moderate level of knowledge. They found statistically significant association of education level with knowledge (0.01) which is congruent with the present study (0.003).


  Conclusion Top


The present study was a descriptive study conducted among selected school-going urban adolescents to assess their knowledge of cannabis use disorder so that a data base is generated regarding the emerging problems of cannabis use among adolescents. The findings of the study suggests that some of the adolescents had previous knowledge of cannabis and harmful effects of it through various sources, but it was not adequate to prevent the use of cannabis in future or to make them more aware about the problem.

The association of selected sociodemographic variables and substance use-related data is also significant and indicates the need of addressing this problems at all level of adolescent's development and a structured module needs to be developed and regularly utilized to educate these young people regarding the harms of cannabis. It is recommended that the study should be replicated to a more wider group of adolescents across the state as well as country.

The present study had few limitations in terms of time, availability of students during the study period, and inability to cover rural adolescents also due to geographic distance and lack of resources, however, the present study opens up the opportunity to more young researchers to explore the problem of cannabis use in particular. The knowledge about the prevention, identification, diagnosis, and treatment of harmful use of cannabis and cannabis use disorder is essential with special consideration to adolescents of the society. The knowledge of cannabis and its harmful effect will help the adolescents in understanding the cannabis-related problems, and it can prevent future intake of cannabis by them. All these findings provide a strong background for further studies in the Indian scenario where not much have been done to solve the problem of cannabis use. There is a need to conduct a study among the Indian urban and rural adolescents to explore the current scenario and take up the steps to prevent the harmful use of cannabis.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. Report on World Mental Health Day: Young people and mental Health in a Changing World; 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int. [Last accessed on 2020 Jan 02].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Devi KS, Singh NH, Mawiong AM. Substance use disorders among adolescents-an emerging problem:A review. IOSR-JDMS 2015;14:1-4. Available from: https://www.iosrjournals.org. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 03].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hall WD, Degenhardt L. Cannabis related disorders. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P, editors. Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009. p. 1309-18.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
World Drug Report: The Health and Social Effect of Nonmedical Cannabis Use. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; 2015. Available from: https://www.unodc.org. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 04].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sortie E. Motivational Intervention: Motivational Tools; 2002.p. 3-13. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64964. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 04].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mariappan U. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Addiction Among Adolescent. Available from: https://sigma.nursingrepository.org/bitstream/handle/10755/335397. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 05].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Goswami YP, Jayalakshmi LS, Mathur DM. The effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding substance abuse among adolescents at selected nursing college of Udaipur Rajasthan. IJSRP 2015;5:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kumar D, Huidrom H. Knowledge regarding substance abuse among higher secondary school students. IJRR 2016;3:70-2. Available from: htpps://www.gkpublications.in. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 04].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Snehalatha R, Bhagyalakshmi M, Hemalatha S. A study to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge of harmful use of alcohol. New York: Penguin. JDA 2017;3:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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Materials and Me...
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