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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 84-88

Assessment on prevalence and risk factors of dyslexia among primary school students


1 Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Sri Devaraj Urs College of Nursing, Kolar, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Nursing Student, Sri Devaraj Urs College of Nursing, Kolar, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission17-Feb-2021
Date of Decision05-Jul-2021
Date of Acceptance17-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication21-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Prof. R Rajesh
Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Sri Devaraj Urs College of Nursing, Tamaka, Kolar - 563 103, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/iopn.iopn_18_21

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  Abstract 


Background: Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that affects reading skills and language processing. Children with dyslexia have difficulty in reading, writing, spelling, grammar or in speaking. Due to these difficulty, the child may be slow in academics, social skills, difficult in manage their daily activities, emotional problems etc. which may lead to long-term educational problems. Aim: To assess the prevalence and explore the risk factors of dyslexia among the primary school students in selected schools. To assess the prevalence of dyslexia among primary school students. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of dyslexia among primary school students. To find out association between the prevalence of dyslexia and selected socio-demographic variables of primary school students. Methodology: A non-experimental study with explorative survey descriptive research design was used. The study was conducted in R.L.Jalappa central school, Tamaka, Kolar. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was adopted in order to select the samples of 100 primary school students who fulfill the selection criteria. The data was collected from the primary school students along with the help of their teachers by using screening checklist for dyslexia which consists of 30 items adopted from British Dyslexia Association (BDA) and a checklist on identifying the risk factors of dyslexia on primary school students which has 10 items through interview method on one to one basis until the desired sample is reached. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analyzing the data. Results: Regarding age in years, 56% of the students were 08 years old, 43% were female students & 57% were male students; class of studying 50% were from 1st standard, another 50% of them were from 2nd standard;44% of the students' academic performance were good with50 % of them were found to be average. The prevalence regarding dyslexia among primary school students on screening were identified as 06% of them with dyslexia and remaining 94% of the students are without dyslexia. In regard to the risk factors concerning to dyslexia in these primary school students; 06 % of them had pre-school language impairment, 04% had some vision/sight problems, 15% of the students were found impulsive in nature: 04% of them had motor coordination difficulty with some developmental problems and almost all the students 100% had normal level of intelligence. Conclusion: The present findings of the study states that the primary school students may be at risk for not attaining full literacy skills due to various risk factors. Early screening with all children in school and intense intervention services should focus on the students who demonstrate the warning signs of dyslexia and related problems in the best way to prevent from becoming more severe in overtime and for better outcomes.

Keywords: Dyslexia, learning disability, primary school students


How to cite this article:
Rajesh R, Sunney H. Assessment on prevalence and risk factors of dyslexia among primary school students. Indian J Psy Nsg 2021;18:84-8

How to cite this URL:
Rajesh R, Sunney H. Assessment on prevalence and risk factors of dyslexia among primary school students. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Oct 6];18:84-8. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2021/18/2/84/332790




  Introduction Top


Today's children are tomorrow's responsible citizens of the world. 35%–45% constitutes the young children of total world's population. The future of our country depends on the health of young people.[1] The term "learning disabilities," sometimes referred to as specific learning disabilities, or learning disorders, is an umbrella term for a wide variety of learning problems. The most common types of learning disabilities involve problems with reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening, and speaking.[2]

Broadly speaking, these disorders involve difficulty in one or more, but not uniformly in all, basic psychological processes: (1) input (auditory and visual perception), (2) integration (sequencing, abstraction, and organization), (3) memory (working, short-term, and long-term memory), (4) output (expressive language), and (5) motor (fine and gross motor).[3]

Learning disabilities vary from individual to individual and may present in a variety of ways. Kindergarten teachers are in the best position to catch early signs and symptoms of learning disabilities and to identify the children who are at risk for struggles in learning at school in their early stages.[3]

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that affects reading skills and language processing. Children with dyslexia have difficulty in reading, writing, spelling, grammar, or in speaking. Due to these difficulties, the child may be slow in academics, social skills, difficult to manage their daily activities, emotional problems, etc., which may lead to long-term educational problems.[4]

In the normal physiological development, the child is expected to acquire a certain set of basic cognition and motor skills, and any significant delay or gap in this development could be a sign of learning disability. In general, 6% of school-age children are affected by learning disabilities. Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that affects reading skills and language processing.[5]

Need for the study

Over the last decade, awareness about this invisible handicap has grown in India. The country has around 30% of the 0–14 years' child population. The prevalence of dyslexia is estimated to be between 5% and 17% of school-age children in India. Children each learn and develop at their own pace and reading is no different from other skill building. It is common from school students to find reading challenging at one point or another. However, if learning to read becomes an ongoing struggle that leaves a child falling behind their peers, it is possible that they have a learning disorder known or dyslexia.[6]

As children with dyslexia need support and encouragement from parents and educate us, detecting the disorder as early as possible is critical. The early identification and early intervention can prevent most serious reading difficulty, or at least reduces the severity of them. Teachers have an important role to play in the identification of children at risk for dyslexia. Understanding and helping the child is important so that they can develop and properly integrate themselves into the school environment.[7]

For many years, the importance of early identification and intervention for children with dyslexia has been stressed. Accordingly, much research has been directed toward establishing precursors of dyslexia in the preschool years. Teachers play a very significant role of children's life and schools are vital platform of every child.[11]

To identify school students on dyslexia with the help of primary school teachers felt an essential need in early identification and prevention from further learning disabilities. Dyslexia can begin to reveal itself at a young age, and there are preschool evaluation that looks at the child awareness of the sounds and ability at word retrieval. Hence, it is good to help them through early intervention and accommodating them in school. Hence, class teachers need to have an understanding of the problems that the dyslexic child may have within the classroom situation.[12]

Thus, it made the investigators to assess the prevalence and risk factors of dyslexia among primary school students in selected schools which becomes more imperative as on today.

Statement of the problem

"An explorative study to assess the prevalence and risk factors of dyslexia among primary school students in selected schools at Kolar."

Objectives

  1. To assess the prevalence of dyslexia among primary school students
  2. To identify the potential risk factors related to dyslexia in primary school students
  3. To find out the association between the prevalence of dyslexia and selected sociodemographic variables of primary school students.



  Materials and Methods Top


A descriptive survey research approach with nonexperimental research design was adopted. The study was conducted on primary school students at R. L Jalappa Central School, Tamaka, Kolar. The samples were selected by using nonprobability convenient sampling technique with the sample size of 100 primary school students studying in 1st standard and 2nd standard that fulfills the selection criteria with the extension of support with their class teachers. A screening checklist for dyslexia which consists of 30 items adopted from the British Dyslexia Association and a checklist on identifying the risk factors of dyslexia on primary school students which has 10 items through interview method on a one-to-one basis until the desired sample is reached was used to collect the data. The score was interpreted as if it is above 15, it is considered primary school students having dyslexia and if the score is below 15, it is considered primary school students not having dyslexia.

Formal permission was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee and concerned approval was taken from the authority of the school, the investigators had explained the purpose of the study to the class teachers of primary school students and obtained written informed assent from the study subjects. With the support of the class teachers the primary school students were screened for dyslexia by collecting the information about the students' progress in academic and as well as with their practical skills in classroom level. Each study subject's information was collected on a one-to-one basis through interview method. Confidentiality and anonymity were maintained during the process of data collection. Later, the data were coded and preceded for statistical analysis by using descriptive and inferential statistics.


  Results Top


Sociodemographic variables

With regard to sociodemographic variables of primary school students, majority of the students 56 (56%) belong to the age group of 6 years and 44 (44%) were 7 years. On gender, 57 (57%) were female and 43 (43%) were male. With regard to the religion, 88 (88%) were Hindu, 8 (8%) were Muslims, and 4 (4%) were Christians. With respect to occupational status of father, majority were private employee (47%), daily wages 39%, government employee 10%, and business 4%. Regarding the occupational status of mother, most of them were housewife (75%), daily worker 15%, private employee 9%, and government employee 1%.

Among the 100 samples, 50% were selected from I standard and another 50% were selected from II standard. With respect to the place of residence, 51 (51%) are from urban area and 49 (49%) are from rural area. In terms of language spoken by them Majority of the primary school students 95 (95%) of them were speaking Kannada commonly at home and 05 (05%) of them were speaking Telugu at home. The entire primary school students, i.e., 100 (100%) of them, are speaking English at school. In connection with the data on their academic performance, 50 (50%) are having average academic performance, 44 (44%) are having good, and 6 (6%) are having excellent academic performance.

Identification of prevalence of dyslexia among primary school students

[Table 1] describes about the frequency and percentage distribution of identification of dyslexic children among primary school students at class room level, the data state that 6% of the primary school students are identified to have characteristics of dyslexia and the remaining 94% of the primary school students do not have any form of dyslexia and found to be with good performance at classroom level.
Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of prevalence on dyslexia among primary school students (n=100)

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Distribution of risk factors of dyslexia in primary school students

On screening the risk factors of dyslexia in primary school students through checklist for various aspects like preschool impairment, vision problem, and developmental problem, etc. [Table 2] reveals the findings about the distribution of risk factors related to dyslexia that 6% of them had preschool language impairment, 4% had some vision/sight problems, and 15% of the students were found impulsive in nature. Four percent of them had motor coordination difficulty with some developmental problems. Almost all the students, i.e., 100%, had normal level of intelligence.
Table 2: Distributions of potential risk factors related to dyslexia in primary school students (n=100)

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With regard to sensitive or emotionally weak, 18% of the primary school students are found to be sensitive whereas 72% of the children do not have any problem associated with emotions. In connection with their time spending with other activities, 35% of the primary school students have some diversion in other tasks; whereas 65% of the students focus on reading or given tasks, 15% of the primary school students are found to have lack of confidence/low self-esteem.

Overall mean score, standard deviation, and range of dyslexic scores in primary school students

The total number of statement in the screening checklist of dyslexia was 30, with the maximum score obtained as 18 and minimum score as 12, so the range falls between 18 and 12. The overall mean score was 7.46 with a standard deviation of 2.98, respectively.

Association between prevalence of dyslexia in primary school students and their selected sociodemographic variables

The findings reveal that there is no statistically significant association found between the prevalence of dyslexia in primary school students and their selected sociodemographic variables at P < 0.05.


  Discussion Top


A similar study was conducted by Sun et al. to investigate prevalence and its potential risk factors of dyslexic children in a middle-sized city of China (Qianjiang, a city in Hubei, China). A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 5 districts and 9 primary schools with 6530 students and in that 5603 valid the questionnaires and obtained for final analyses. The results showed that the prevalence of dyslexia was 3.9% in Qianjiang city. Among dyslexic children, the gender ratio (boys to girls) was nearly 3:1. The potential risk factors identified with the dyslexic children were different economic levels, parent's attitude toward children, hours on watching TV, and lack of active learning habits were all found to be associated risk factors which had a great impact on detecting and treating dyslexic children in China as early as possible. The Chi-square test states that gender, mother's educational level, and home literacy environment were found to be significant association with the dyslexia group.[8]

Enoch Acheampong et al. conducted a descriptive study on public basic school teachers to assess the knowledge in identification and support services for children with dyslexia. The results revealed that an average of 62% of the teachers had knowledge on dyslexia, 60.5% of teachers had knowledge on identification of dyslexia, and an average of 65% had knowledge on support services for children with dyslexia. The main barriers to teaching children with dyslexia included inadequate resources, lack of training on dyslexia, large class sizes making it difficult to recognize a dyslexia as well as time to develop dyslexia-friendly instructions. Therefore, more in-service training on dyslexia should be organized for all basic school teachers.[9]

A similar study has been carried out by Roongpraiwan et al. (2002) on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of dyslexia in primary school students. The findings showed that the prevalence of dyslexia and probable dyslexia was found to be 6.3% and 12.6%, respectively. The male-to-female ratio of dyslexia was 3.4:1. The entire dyslexia group had a normal grossly neurological examination, but 90% showed positive soft neurological signs. The mean verbal intellectual quotient score in the dyslexia group assessed by using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was 76 ± 7. The comorbid ADHD was 8.7% in the dyslexia group.[10]

Summary

The present findings of the study state that the primary school students may be at risk for not attaining full literacy skills due to various risk factors. Early screening with all children in school and intense intervention services should focus on the students who demonstrate the warning signs of dyslexia and related problems in the best way to prevent from becoming more severe in overtime and for better outcomes.[13]

Implications

The findings of the current study have certain implications:

  1. Inclusion of specific learning disability in curriculum of teacher training
  2. School systems should embed the screening procedure for learning disabilities in their policies
  3. Empower the teachers in identifying children with additional learning needs early during the study process
  4. Appointment of a specially trained academic therapist to work closely with their class teachers for quality literacy approach
  5. Parental education toward sensitive parenting and teaching skills in home at different ages
  6. School-based intervention programs/approaches.


Limitations

  • Small sample size of 100 primary school students
  • Only one setting in R. L. Jalappa Central School at Kolar
  • The data about the students are completely self-reported from their teachers
  • Assessment of dyslexia and its risk factors is limited to only the primary school students.



  Conclusion Top


The challenge is to ensure that primary school teachers should understand how to identify students with reading difficulties, including dyslexia very early, and takes necessary precautions to help the students to get included in normal inclusive education, thus by preventing them from special education/schools as well as mitigating their social and emotional difficulties.[14]

Acknowledgment

The group members express their gratitude to all the primary school children and their class teachers for their complete support and cooperation for participating in the study with the short duration and also to the school authorities of R. L. Jalappa Central School, Tamaka, Kolar, for giving permission to conduct the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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1.
Charan GS, Kaur H. A cross-sectional survey to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding dyslexia among teachers at selected schools, Punjab. Int J Sci Healthcare Res 2017;2:9-14.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Karande, S., Sholapurwala, R. & Kulkarni, M. Managing specific learning disability in schools in India. Indian Pediatr 48, 515–520 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13312-011-0090-1.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Habib M, Giraud K. Dyslexia. Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:229-35.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Tridas EQ, editor. From ABC to ADHD: What Every Parent Should Know About Dyslexia. Baltimore: The International Dyslexia Association; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Shah HR, Sagar JK, Somaiya MP, Nagpal JK. Clinical practice guidelines on assessment and management of specific learning disorders. Indian J Psychiatry 2019;61:211-25.  Back to cited text no. 5
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Snowling MJ. Early identification and interventions for dyslexia: A contemporary view, Europe PMC funders group author manuscript. J Res Spec Educ Needs 2013;13:7-14.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Moats L, Dakin K. Basic Facts about Dyslexia and Other Reading Problems. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sun Z, Zou L, Zhang J, Mo S, Shao S, Zhong R, et al. Prevalence and associated risk factors of dyslexic children in a middle-sized city of China: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2013;8:e56688.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Acheampong, Enoch & Yeboah, Michael & Anokye, Reindolf & Edusei Kwaku, Anthony & Nadutey, Alberta & Afful, Barbara. Knowledge of basic school teachers on identification and support services for children with dyslexia. Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 2019, 15(2):86-101.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Roongpraiwan R, Ruangdaraganon N, Visudhiphan P, Santikul K. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dyslexia in primary school students. J Med Assoc Thai 2002;85 Suppl 4:S1097-103.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Moats L, Dakin K, Joshi RM. Expert perspectives on interventions for reading. A Collection of Best-Practice Articles from the International Dyslexia Association. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Tridas E. From ABC to ADHD: What Parents Should Know About Dyslexia and Attention Problems. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Leseyane M, Mandende P, Makgato M, Cekiso M. Dyslexic learners' experiences with their peers and teachers in special and mainstream primary schools in north-west Province. Afr J Disabil 2018;7:363.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Nascimento IS, Rosal AG, de Queiroga BA. Elementary school teachers' knowledge on dyslexia. Rev CEFAC 2018;20:87-93. doi: 10.1590/1982-021620182019117.  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
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