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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2020
Volume 17 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 59-118

Online since Monday, February 8, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Greetings from ISPN India p. 59
Sandhya Gupta
DOI:10.4103/2231-1505.308836  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude toward Mental Illness among Rural Adults: A Correlation Study p. 60
Pooja Chand, Kamlesh Dixit
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_13_20  
Introduction: Mental illness has always been associated with ignorance and superstitions. Although mental illness is a global health issue, the world community has little knowledge about mental disorders. Improving the knowledge and attitude of the global population is vital to reduce stigma and various other key concerns related to mental illness. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitude regarding mental illness among adults in a rural area of Dehradun. Methodology: The present study was conducted with a quantitative descriptive approach. The study was conducted at Mothrowala community, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. The population of the current study comprised 100 adults, both males and females, who are at the age group of 20–30 years, from the selected rural community. The participants were selected by nonprobability purposive sampling technique for this study. A self-structured questionnaire on the demographic profile, knowledge, and attitude about mental illness was distributed. Results: The study revealed that nearly two-third adults had moderately adequate knowledge. The majority of participants (95%) have a positive attitude toward mental illness. This study also revealed that there was a significant positive correlation (p-value-0.0001) between knowledge and attitude of adults toward mental illness. Likewise, there was a significant association between the marital status and knowledge of adults, whereas levels of attitude have a significant association with educational status, religion, and sensitization program. Conclusion: Findings of this research study suggested that knowledge and attitude of rural adults have a significant correlation regarding mental illness. In addition, knowledge and attitudes of the community are partially associated with their selected demographic variables. Furthermore, adequate knowledge and positive attitude are key for mentally healthy communities.
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Occurrence of Cardio Metabolic Risk and Attitude Towards Reduction of Cardio Metabolic Risk Factors Among Patient Receiving Long Term Anti Psychotics p. 64
Surya Prakash, Nanda Kumar Paniyadi, Bishwa Ranjan Mishra, Asha Prabhakar Shetty
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_17_20  
Background: Noncommunicable disorders (NCDs) are in an increasing trend over the past decades. The increased risk of CMD may be due to various modifiable factors. The use of antipsychotics in patients with severe mental illness (SMI) also increase the risk of CMD. Thus, monitoring and assessing the risk factors is quite essential in a clinical setting. Regular monitoring and attitude of the patients toward the reduction also plays an essential role in the reduction of CMR factors. Objectives: 1. To estimate the prevalence of CMR among patients receiving long term antipsychotics 2. To assess the attitude toward the reduction of CMR factors among patients receiving long term antipsychotics Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational study using convenient sampling technique was used. The sample size was 110. A semi-structured questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, median, and interquartile range) and inferential statistics (Chi-square). Results: It was found that majority of the patients (51.8%) are a low risk for CMD and 91.8% of the patients had favorable attitude toward risk reduction of cardiometabolic disease. A significant association was found between attitude and age (P = 0.001*), religion (P =0.003*), and socioeconomic status (P = 0.03*). Conclusion: In this study, it was found that the risk of developing cardiometabolic disease is found in all patients ranging from low to high risk. Meanwhile, the attitude toward reduction was positive.
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Effect of Nurse Led Brief Psycho-Education in Improving Self-Reported Medication Adherence Among Clients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital North India: Quasi-experimental Study p. 72
Manisha Deswal, Jaison Joseph, Vinay Kumar
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_23_20  
Introduction: Although fewer people in India consume alcohol, a larger proportion is affected by harmful use or dependence on alcohol. Medication compliance found to be the most important predictor in the outcomes of alcohol de-addiction treatment. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-led brief psychoeducation in improving the self-reported medication adherence among treatment-seeking clients attending a de-deaddiction center of North India. Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study in which a total of 70 subjects were consecutively recruited as per the sampling criteria. A trained nurse delivered a 30-min individual-based brief psychoeducation for those in the intervention group as per the standard module. The subjects in the control group received the usual hospital care. The outcome measures were changes in adherence to medication measured as per the Medication Adherence Rating Scale during a 1-week follow-up. Results: The mean age of the subject was 37.53 (standard deviation – 9.57). Disbelief toward treatment (84.28%), persisting comorbid illness (47.14%), and forgetfulness (35.7%) were the most common self-reported factors for medication nonadherence in this setting. The study observed a statistically significant improvement in the self-reported medication adherence in the intervention group as compared to the control group during the 1-week follow-up period (independent sample t-test; t = 7.14; P < 0.01). Conclusion: The present study identified that nurse-led brief psychoeducation might be an effective strategy in improving medication adherence among clients with alcohol dependence syndrome in this setting. However, further studies with the rigorous scientific approach are needed to generalize the findings.
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A Study to Assess the Level of Knowledge of Cannabis Use Disorder among Adolescents p. 79
Tanushree Mitra, Punita A Sharma, Radhika Das, Sindhu Gopal
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_12_20  
Background: Adolescents are exploring in nature. Their natural tendency to seek pleasure through experiments and exploration makes them more vulnerable. The problem of cannabis use emerged in a great way as it was thought of harmless and recreational drugs for a long time. The present study explored the knowledge level of adolescents regarding cannabis use disorder which was not explored much. Method: A Cross-sectional Descriptive study, conducted among school going urban adolescents in selected schools of western Maharashtra during October -December 2018. The study was conducted among 259 adolescents. The knowledge regarding cannabis use disorder was assessed by self- administered questionnaire of 20 items along with the relevant socio-demographic and substance use related data. Results: The study revealed that most of the samples (82.63%) had average level of knowledge, few of the samples (17.37%) had poor knowledge and nil had good level of knowledge of cannabis use disorder. There was statistically significant association between the knowledge score and the sex(0.013), level of education (0.003) and the monthly family income(0.019). Conclusion: Most of the adolescents either had average or poor knowledge of cannabis use disorder. A module needs to be developed and disseminated among adolescents to increase their knowledge level and awareness. Involvement of parents and school teachers were suggested.
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Nicotine Dependence, Readiness to Change Behavior among Tobacco Users Attending Tertiary Care Hospital's De-Addiction Clinic in Uttarakhand p. 84
Rajesh Kumar, Hoineiting Rebecca Haokip, Kalpana Beniwal, Yogesh Bahurupi
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_62_20  
Introduction: Tobacco use is a significant cause of many respiratory diseases and preventable deaths in India. The crunch of information on the magnitude of the tobacco use problem unable to planned and implement tobacco cessation programs in the Himalayan region. This study aims to determine nicotine dependence and readiness to change behavior in tobacco users attending a tertiary care teaching hospital's de-addiction clinic. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study purposively included 120 tobacco users over 6 months in a public hospital's de-addiction clinic, North India. A structured personal and clinical profile sheet, the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence-Revised Version-smokable and smokeless), and Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ) were used to collect information. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to generate the findings. Results: The mean age of tobacco initiation was 20.69 (±6.12) years in the study population, with a median ofthree quit attempts (median: 3; interquartile range: 2–5). Nearly 55.8% and 18.3% of participants were using smokable and smokeless tobacco, respectively. Bidi was the most preferred (75.8%) form of smokable tobacco among study participants. The majority of participants were in the category of high nicotine dependence (76.6%) as per the FTND scale and were in the contemplation phase (55%), whereas 45% of the users found it in the action stage of quitting tobacco. Conclusions: The majority of the participants were in the high nicotine dependence stage. However, readiness to change behavior to quit or reduce tobacco use is noteworthy, emphasizing need-based intervention and assisted follow-up programs to tobacco users in the outpatients.
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Impact of Nurse-Led Assertiveness Tutelage on Raising Self-esteem among Adolescent Girls p. 91
Abirami Venkatesan, Shankar Shanmugam Rajendran
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_37_20  
Background: Adolescence is a transition period where they are confused about what they need and experience dissatisfaction toward bodily changes, especially female adolescent girls. Self-esteem is evaluated by how one feels about one's self-concept. Low self-esteem constitutes negative outcomes such as hopelessness, uselessness, depression, and adjustment problems. Vulnerability stress model suggests that low self-esteem leads to depression. Self-esteem is acquired by undergoing specific training, such as “Assertiveness Tutelage” which fosters communication skill, assertive behavior, and assertiveness in raising self-esteem. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nurse lead assertiveness tutelage among adolescent girls. Methodology: Quantitative approach and quasi-experimental design was adopted. By nonprobability purposive sampling, 60 adolescent girls were included in the study from a selected school in Chennai. The level of self-esteem was measured by the State Self-Esteem Scale. After collecting the pretest data from experimental and control groups, assertiveness tutelage intervention was provided to the experimental group at 1st week, reinforced for the next 2 weeks, and posttest was collected at the end of 4th week from both the groups. Data Analysis: SPSS software was used for the data analysis. Results: In the experimental group at pretest level, the mean self-esteem score of adolescent girls was 60.40 and at posttest level, it was 83.47. This mean difference in gain of self-esteem was 23.07 which was statistically significant, with t = 10.40 (P = 0.001). Conclusion: This study has proven that nurse-led assertiveness tutelage raised the self-esteem among adolescent girls and strengthened their ability and helps them to develop coping and problem-solving skills, etc.
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A Brief Report on the Sociodemographic Profile and Attitude of the Caregivers of Children with Intellectual Disability in Rehabilitation Settings p. 95
M Vijayarani, G Balamurgan
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_49_20  
Background: The critical factor for supporting children with intellectual disabilities is the awareness and constructive participation of support systems such as their families and carers. The present study attempts to identify the attitude of the caregivers toward the intellectually disabled children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the current level of caregivers' attitudes toward children with intellectual disabilities in selected institutions, Bangalore. Method: This study was based on descriptive research design. Three special schools located in Bangalore were selected. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 134 caregivers. It includes a demographic profile and attitude questionnaire for caregivers toward children with intellectual disability. Results: About 15.7% of caregivers had the most favorable attitude; half (51%) of them had a favorable attitude, and 33% had an unfavorable attitude toward children with intellectual disability. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that most caregivers had a favorable attitude, whereas one-third of the caregivers in the selected setting had an unfavorable attitude. This study shows that the majority of the children with intellectual disability were suffering from epilepsy and behavioral disorder. Therefore, it is important to take needed steps such as education and awareness to foster acceptance and care among caregivers.
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Are the Nurses Competent to Give Spiritual Care? p. 100
KR Anoopa, Annal Angeline, Jimi Patrishia Jerome
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_50_20  
Introduction: Spiritual care is an inseparable element of nursing. A descriptive study was conducted to assess the spiritual care competence of nurses working in the intensive care units. The objectives were to assess the spiritual care competence of nurses on six domains of spiritual care, namely assessment and implementation of spiritual care, attitude toward patient's spirituality, communication, personal support and patient counseling, referral, professionalization, and improving quality of spiritual care and to associate spiritual care competence with selected demographic variables. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted intensive care units of selected hospitals at Kollam. Fifty staff nurses were selected by purposive sampling technique. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The findings revealed that 74% of subjects reported moderate competence, 22% less competence, and 4% have adequate competence. Conclusion: The study provides evidence to guide the nurse educators and policymakers on the need to focus on preparing nurses to develop spiritual nursing care competence. Nurses' competence in spiritual care gives a holistic perspective to patient care. A well-planned training program gives more clarity to the concept of spiritual care and nurses' role in various domains of spiritual care for patients. Training programs can be planned for nurses and students on spiritual care, policy guidelines on spiritual care can be developed and implemented, which may help the nurses to enable their clients to find meaning in their experience during hospitalization.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Online Classes for Nursing Fraternity: A Systematic Review of the Impact on Attitude, Knowledge, and Skills p. 104
Prerna Sharma, Smriti Arora
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_18_20  
Owing to COVID-19, there has been a lot of emphasis on online classes among educational institutes. Online classes have their own merits and demerits as compared to traditional classes. COVID-19 crisis changed the teaching–learning pedagogy dramatically and pushes the learning platform from conventional methods to more use of online or electronic methods. This objective of the study was to review the effect of online classes on attitude, knowledge, and skill among nursing fraternity (nursing students, staff nurses, and nursing faculty) so that measures can be planned to deliver online education to students in a more efficient and acceptable manner. The studies included were published between January 2010 and March 2020 using the following databases: CINAHL, ERIC, Medline, EMBASE, Dissertation, and Theses. The experimental study (randomized controlled trial) and nonexperimental study designs were included. Thirty-three studies were found eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The review demonstrates that the nursing fraternity has positive attitude toward online classes. There is a significant change in knowledge scores also, but limited data could be found regarding skill improvement after the online classes. Data were extracted using a narrative synthesis. There was significant improvement in nurses' attitude and knowledge between groups who attended online classes and the ones who participated in traditional learning.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Child and Adolescent Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic p. 112
Radhakrishnan Govindan, Rajalakshmi Ramu
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_42_20  
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Cherished Serendipitous Effects of Disastrous COVID-19 Pandemic: The Desired Side Effects of an Undesired Event p. 114
Sujita Kumar Kar, Sarvodaya Tripathy, Deblina Roy, SM Yasir Arafat
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_32_20  
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VIEWPOINT Top

Pivotal Roles of a Mental Health Nurse in the Time of COVID-19 p. 116
Sreevani Rentala
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_45_20  
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