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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2021
Volume 18 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-66

Online since Thursday, June 17, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Greetings from ISPN India Highly accessed article p. 1
Sandhya Gupta
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_27_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Qualitative study on the psychological experience of nursing officers caring COVID-19 patients Highly accessed article p. 2
Nipin kalal, Ashok kumar, Raj Rani, Navratan suthar, Himanshu vyas, Vikas choudhary
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_39_20  
Background: Coronavirus spreads very rapidly and nursing staff is fighting like warrior. They are facing so many psychological issues. During the pandemic, positive and negative emotions of frontline nurses interlace and exist. Objectives: To explore the psychological experience of nursing officers caring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Materials and Methods: Phenomenological research approach was adopted. Twelve nursing officers were enrolled with nonprobability purposive sampling technique who provided care for COVID-19 patients. The interviews were conducted face-to-face and were analyzed by the Colaizzi's 7-step method. Results: The data were obtained from 12 nursing officers caring for patients with COVID-19. The mean age of the participants was 28 ± 1.87 years, with a mean work experience of 3.75 ± 1.05. Three themes were extracted from the detailed interview. First theme: the expression of negative emotions in the initial stage consisting of fear and anxiety regarding infection and family member, fatigue and discomfort related to high work intensity, and protective gear and anxiety regarding changing of ward and long duty hours. Second theme: the use of coping strategies and self-care styles consisting of communication with family members and friends and adjustment to the new era of life. Third theme: expressing positive emotions as adjusted with duty comprised of motivation and support from senior authority, feeling happy to be a part of humanity service, and satisfied with my duty and postduty quarantine facilities. Conclusions: The results of this study show that nursing officers caring COVID-19 patients are experiencing mental and emotional distress at initial stage of duty. As days passed participants used coping strategies and understand the new era of situation. Gradually, they expressed positive emotions and they were happy and satisfied with work.
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A Study to assess the challenges faced and measures taken by the mothers of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in a selected hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal p. 8
Soumi Mandal, Bhanumati Dutta
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_40_20  
Context: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present a big challenge to mothers. They experience burden and lack of support and resources in child's care. Aims: This study aimed to assess the challenges faced and measures taken by mothers of children with ADHD. Settings: The present study was conducted at Outpatient Department of Manovikas Kendra, 482, Madudah. Plot 1-24, Sector - J, E. M. Bypass, Kolkata-700 107, West Bengal. Design: This was a descriptive survey approach. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected from 86 mothers included by nonprobability convenience sampling technique. Rating scale and semi-structured interview schedule were used to collect data. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for statistical analysis. Results: The findings revealed that only 2 (2.32%) mothers of children with ADHD faced mild (0–25), 81 (94.18%) mothers of children with ADHD faced moderate level (26–51), 3 (3.48%) mothers of children with ADHD faced severe (52–76) level of challenges, and all mothers (100%) used punishment/beating, provided the child toys for calming down, kept child under supervision, and praised their willingness to study rather than getting full marks. The computed Chi-square result showed significant association between level of challenges faced by the mothers with types of family, education qualification, and monthly family income (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Majority (94.18%) of the mothers of children with ADHD faced moderate level of challenges.
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Incidence and risk factors of poststroke depression among acute stroke survival patients attending neurology outpatient department of a selected hospital in Kolkata p. 17
Chandrika Ghosh, Uma Rani Adhikari
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_60_20  
Background: Poststroke depression is consider as the most common emotional disorder of stroke survivors; it can affect one among three of stroke survivors at any time up to 5 years after stroke. Researcher chooses the topic to give focus on the emotional health of the stroke survivors after the stroke. This study was conducted to identify the incidence (short-term incidence) and risk factors of poststroke depression among acute stroke survival patients. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive survey design was conducted at neurology outpatient department of a selected hospital in Kolkata. Total 104 acute (within 3 months following stroke) stroke survival patients were selected by purposive sampling technique for this study purpose. Incidence of poststroke depression was identified by Montgomery–Asberg depression rating scale and for risk factors of poststroke depression; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Barthel Index, and Mini-mental status examination were used. Tool was pretested before the final study. Results: The findings of the study showed that the incidence (short-term incidence) of poststroke depression was 52% (95% confidence interval: 42.2%–61.8%). The Chi-square value reveals that there is a significant association between poststroke depression and deterioration of disease condition from the onset of the disease, days of suffering from the disease, number of admission for the disease, severity of stroke, impairment of level of independence, and impairment of cognitive function. Conclusion: Identifying the risk factors of poststroke depression, the nurses can screen the stroke survival patients for early detection of depression following stroke.
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Prevalence of selected learning disabilities among primary schoolchildren through primary school teachers: A descriptive survey p. 23
Urvashi Goel
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_51_20  
Background: The incidence of dyslexia in Indian primary schoolchildren has been reported to be 2%–18%, dysgraphia 14%, and dyscalculia 5.5%. India is thought to have approximately 90 million people with varying degrees of learning disabilities (LDs) and an average class in school has about five students with LDs. A recent news article in Times of India states that dyslexia is the most common LD with nearly 35 million children suffering from it. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of selected LDs among primary school children through primary school teachers. Methodology: Quantitative, exploratory research approach with survey design was used to assess the prevalence of selected LDs among primary schoolchildren through 100 primary school teachers as samples in selected primary schools students of Delhi using sociodemographic datasheet and structured questionnaire tool. Results: Evaluation of the questionnaire from 100 teachers identified that 784 (26%) students were at risk of developing LDs among 2934 children. The study shows that out of 784 primary schoolchildren identified at risk, 54.9% were identified having dyslexia, while 23.9% were identified having dysgraphia, and 21.1% were identified having dyscalculia. Conclusion: It is concluded that 26% of the primary school students are at risk of developing selected LDs. Teachers whose class students were found to be at risk of developing LDs were asked to see further medical help.
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Impact of screen time on sleep quality p. 29
Renju Sussan Baby, Alwin Issac, Alka Vasudev, Divya K Sabu, TS Gopika, Mansi Pal, Ragini Sahu
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_15_21  
Background: Technology that years ago we could only dream of or read in science fiction novels, which we then actually created with much hope in their power of connecting people, has become a tool of gratification. To many, smart phone is an eye opener, their first alarm clock, newspaper, and stress buster. The scariest part about smart phone addiction is that it can affect our physical and mental health, our relationships, and productivity. Considering the growing use of smart phone by the youth and its impact on sleep, this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between Smart phone screen time and sleep quality. Materials and Methods: A quantitative approach with cross-sectional design was adopted for the study. An application named “Quality time” was used to assess the screen time among samples. Pittsburgh sleep quality index was used to appraise the duration of sleep. Results: The study establishes that there was a significant negative correlation between smart phone screen time and sleep duration (ρ = −0.61 P < 0.001) Conclusion: Availability of diverse sort of electronic media engages the students more on screen, which adversely affects their sleeping quality and pattern. Although the development of technology is a boon, findings of the study depict that greater the screen time, poorer the quality of the sleep.
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The analysis of harmful factors affecting on mental health and cognitive function among workers of steel industry (Using the ISO9612 Approach) p. 33
Hadi alimoradi, Mahsa Nazari, Rohollah Fallah Madvari, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Reza Jafari Nodoushan, Alireza ajdani
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_21_20  
Background: In most industrial environments, workers are exposed to noise on a daily basis. The present study dealt with a set of cognitive factors to evaluate the negative emotional states in depression, anxiety, and stress in a noisy work environment. Methods: The research was a case-study that examined in 1000 male workers of steel industry. The sampling method was random sampling. The workers filled out questionnaire about, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Scale, Cognitive Processing Inventory, and personality type tests in the study, and the ISO 9612:2009 standards was used to obtain external noise. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 22 and exact test with 0.05 significant levels. Results: According to the results, age showed a significant effect on depression, marital status on anxiety, and the shift on employee stress (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Finally, one can conclude that given the positive and significant relationship between noise pressure level and cognitive and subjective components in the case group, it is necessary to take effective preventive measures to prevent psychological damage and to maintain workers' health in the industry.
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Noncompliance to treatment among persons with mental illness p. 43
MC Seena, Reena George, Padinharath Krishnakumar, Rajith K Ravindran
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_54_20  
Background: Noncompliance to treatment is an alarming issue challenging the entire mental health-care system. If this issue is tackled by the institutions and mental health-care professionals, a drastic change can be brought to the treatment of mentally ill and prevent unnecessary hospitalization due to relapse. Noncompliance to psychiatric treatment among 569 patients revealed that 328 (58.2%) were complied with the treatment and 236 (41.8%) were noncompliant to psychiatric treatment. Objectives:The objectives were to assess the noncompliance to treatment among person with mental illness and to identify the factors contributing to the noncompliance to treatment. Materials and Methods: A quantitative approach with cross-sectional descriptive design using retrospective analysis was adopted for the study. All patients attending psychiatric unit were screened and 100 patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected through nonprobability convenience sampling technique from the adult psychiatry unit, IMHANS, Kozhikode. The data collection instruments were a sociodemographic pro forma, noncompliance checklist, and a checklist on factors contributing to the noncompliance to treatment. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A population of 156 patients were screened, (56) 35.8% of patients had compliance to treatment and (100) 64% of patients had noncompliance to treatment. Hence, the sample consists of the 100 patients who had noncompliance to the treatment. The data on diagnoses and percentage of patients with noncompliance show that most of the patients (25%) who had noncompliance to treatment were diagnosed with bipolar affective disorders and 22% of sample to noncompliance to treatment were diagnosed with schizophrenia. The study found that a main cause of noncompliance to treatment is to avoid the feelings of being sick. Conclusion: This study found that there is an increased need to conduct public awareness programs and other psychosocial interventions to sensitize the public to regarding mental illness and importance of compliance to treatment.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Consultation-liaison psychiatry: A Step toward achieving effective mental health care for medically ill patients p. 49
Siddharth Sarkar, Swarndeep Singh
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_16_21  
Consultation-liaison (CL) psychiatry is at the interface of psychiatry and other medical/surgical specialties and deals with providing clinical services or care to medically ill patients seen at the medical or surgical inpatient or outpatient departments. This review article aims to highlight the scope of CL psychiatry practice and the need for having effective CL psychiatry clinical services, with special emphasis on discussing how developing CL psychiatry services could help in overcoming existing barriers in the delivery of effective mental health care in the general hospital or primary health care settings. An electronic literature search was performed using the PubMed and Google Scholar search engines for selecting papers related to theme of CL psychiatry and effective mental health care or treatment. The CL psychiatry services improve the overall course and prognosis of both physical and mental health disorders in patients admitted under the medical or surgical hospital wards, with a reduction in length of stay, rehospitalization rates, and total health costs incurred to the medical systems. It can help in bridging the existing mental health treatment gap by overcoming existing barriers such as poor recognition of mental health problems, inadequate treatment, and high mental illness-related stigma.
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Efficacy of psychoeducation to improve medication adherence among bipolar affective disorder: A systematic review p. 55
Jaishri , Sreevani Rentala
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_61_20  
Bipolar affective disorder is a chronic disorder with evidence of lack of medication adherence, a high relapse rate, significant general disability and burden of psychosocial impairment that often persists for long time. Therefore, Enhancement of treatment adherence in bipolar disorder is a necessary and promising management component as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the effects of psycho-educational interventions on medication adherence among BPAD patients. An electronic literature search was performed using PubMed, cochrane library and google scholar other sources like reports, thesis, or dissertation from May 2012 to March 2020. Search was focused on full text articles available in english, studies had been conducted among adult patients, quantitative RCTs, experimental studies on individual and group psychoeducational intervention. The present review included 10 experimental studies published online. The most literature supports the usefulness psychoeducation on medication adherence in bipolar affective disorder.
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CONCEPT PAPER Top

Emotional Freedom Technique-Importance in Nursing p. 61
Deepak Krishnamurthy, Anil Sharma
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_12_21  
Emotional Freedom technique was an effective tool in managing various psychological distresses, and optimizes emotional health. It was often overlooked due to skepticism of its result, No matter we have sound psychopharmacology and various psychological therapies to treat emotional problems, even EFT, simple tapping technique was found effective in treating various emotional issues like depression, anxiety, stress, addiction and many more if practiced by Nurses in clinical settings to adopt holistic approach to heal the emotional issues.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Faculty leadership during COVID 19 in nursing education p. 64
Usha Marath
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_21_21  
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VIEWPOINT Top

Online class – Is it a threat to mental health? p. 65
M Vijayarani, G Balamurugan
DOI:10.4103/2231-1505.318669  
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