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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January 2020
Volume 17 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-58

Online since Saturday, August 8, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Greetings from ISPN India p. 1
Sandhya Gupta
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_20_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Assessment of life skills among early adolescents: A descriptive study p. 2
Parashmoni Borah, Nurnahar Ahmed, Sandeep Kollipara
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_6_20  
Background: Life skills are the abilities that enable to maintain life in adaptive way and help to deal with the challenges of life. Adolescence is a very crucial stage where various changes take place and during this phase needs special attention. Life skills play a significant role in adolescence and help to cope with the stress and frustration of their life. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the life skills of among early adolescents. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey with descriptive research design was used. The study was conducted in a selected school of Sonitpur, Assam. A total of 122 students from Class VI to VIII were selected using total enumeration technique. Sociodemographic pro forma and translated version of life skills assessment scale were used to collect data after ethical clearance and written permission from concerned authorities. Results: The findings showed that 72% of the participants had average of life skills. There was a statistically significant association between gender (χ2 = 5.40, P = 0.02) and father's education (χ2 = 4.49, P = 0.03) with the global score of life skills of the participants. Creative thinking of early adolescents was found to be significantly associated with religion (χ2 = 5.20, P = 0.03) and critical thinking was found to be significantly associated with mother's education (χ2 = 7.99, P = 0.01). Decision-making of early adolescents was found to be significantly associated with gender (χ2 = 5.11, P = 0.02) and mother's occupation (χ2 = 4.16, P = 0.04). Coping with emotion of early adolescents was found to be significantly associated with gender (χ2 = 3.86, P = 0.04). Coping with stress of early adolescents was found to be significantly associated with gender (χ2 = 4.54, P = 0.03) and mother's occupation (χ2 = 7.07, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Comparative study can be conducted between the students of government and private schools or rural and urban schools. Life skill training could enhance the life skills.
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A cross-sectional study to assess the relation between anxiety and physical aggression of dementia patients at the department of geriatric mental health p. 8
Kanchan Sahu, Sudha Mishra, Bhupendra Singh
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_2_20  
Introduction: An increased in life expectancy for the past few decades has led to increased elderly population and thus dementia as growing health problem. The number of serious complications including behavioral and psychological symptoms in which anxiety and physical aggression is common. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the anxiety and physical aggression and relation between them of dementia patients. Materials and Methods: A quantitative approach and cross-sectional, descriptive design was used for data collection using nonprobability, purposive sampling technique from 55 dementia patients diagnosed by psychiatrist from the outpatient and inpatient departments of Geriatric Mental Health King George's Medical University, Uttar Pradesh, India, using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Cohen Mansfield agitation inventory. Results: Among these patients, mostly belong to the age group of 70–79 living in the urban area, married, illiterate and had Alzheimer's type of dementia with duration of illness for more than 2 years and most of them had never been hospitalized for the treatment. Majority of them, 45.5% had mild-to-moderate anxiety, physical aggression was present in 36.38% and most of patients had mild cognitive impairment. A significant positive correlation was found between the anxiety and physical aggression. Most of the patients were on psychotropic medication, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were used by almost every patient. Significant association had been found of anxiety with gender, education, marital status, and occupation and of physical aggression a significant association with gender, education, and marital status of dementia patients.Conclusion: The anxiety is significantly positively correlated with physical aggression of dementia patients.
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Effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge regarding hazards of substance abuse among adolescent boys of higher secondary school p. 14
Perkash Kour
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_10_20  
Background: Adolescent is a stage of struggle for identity. It is evidenced by rebelliousness, adventure seeking behavior and oppositional defiance. The future citizens are at great risk for early ignition to drugs. Substance abuse is a common social problem, not only in India but throughout the world. The problem of substance abuse is growing at an explosive rate and in just little over a decade it has spread its malevolent tentacles to almost every part of the globe. Aim: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge regarding substance abuse among adolescent boys studying in 10th class by conducting pretest before intervention and posttests after intervention on 7th day. Materials and Methods: Pre-experimental one group pre-test and post-test design was used for this study. The sample of 60 students studying 10th standard were selected using purposive sampling technique consists of adolescent age of 16-17yrs, from selected govt. higher secondary school Srinagar J&K. Self Strutured knowledge questionnaire (pre-test post-test) were administered. The effectiveness of Strutured Teaching Programme (STP) was determined by comparing pre-test post-test knowledge scores. Results: The study findings showed that there was significant increase in knowledge score after exposure to structured teaching programme on substance abuse. There was statistically significant association between the level of knowledge gain and fathers occupation at P = 0.034. Conclusion: The study concluded that the mean difference between pre-test and post test knowledge score was 11.317. It has been proved statistically that the STP has an effect on increasing the knowledge regarding substance abuse among high school students.
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A comparative study to assess the quality of life among the elder people living in rural and urban areas p. 18
Bince Varghese, MR Selvan, Deepika Kushwaha, Divya Pathak, Deepali Prajapati, KM Anju, Asheesh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_3_20  
Introduction: Quality of life (QOL) is defined as the combination of an individual's functional health, feeling of competence, independence activities of daily living, and satisfaction of social circumstances. Aim: This study aimed to assess and compare the QOL among the elderly people in selected rural and urban areas of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A quantitative nonexperimental comparative study research design was adopted for the study. The data were collected using convenience sampling technique. The total sample comprised 70 elder people, 35 each from the urban and rural areas. A standardized World Health Organization-QOL BREF questionnaire containing 26 items was used for assessing the QOL of the subjects. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25. Results: The urban elders had better QOL in the only environmental domain (P = 0.003) than the rural population, and all the other domains such as physical (P = 0.45), psychological (P = 0.33), and social relationship (P = 0.42) did not have any significant difference. There was no association found between QOL among the elderly people in rural and urban areas with their selected sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: There is a significant difference in the environmental domain QOL among the elderly living in urban areas than the rural one. A qualitative approach can be used to explore comprehensive findings in future studies.
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Impact of family environment on mental well-being of adolescent girls: A cross-sectional survey p. 24
Sushil Kumar Maheshwari, Rintu Chaturvedi, Sandhya Gupta
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_19_19  
Background: Family is the only institution which provides security and support without any rewards in return. The family environment influences adolescence psychological adjustment and problem-solving strategies as well as self-confidence and abilities to set clear goals. The healthy functioning of these interaction patterns enhances the mental well-being of an individual. Aim: This study is aimed to assess the impact of family environment on the mental well-being of adolescent girls in selected villages of Western Punjab, India. Materials and Methods: Quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional survey approach was used to assess the family environment and mental well-being of conveniently selected 900 adolescent girls (age of 11–19 years) in selected villages of Punjab using sociodemographic data sheet, Family Environment Scale and Warwick Edinburgh mental well-being scale. Results: Approximately two-third (36.7%) of the adolescent's girls have below-average mental well-being, whereas the majority (62.2%) of adolescent girls have average, and only 1.1% have above-average mental well-being. Mental well-being was positively correlated with cohesion, acceptance, and caring at P < 0.01 level, and expressiveness, independence, active recreational orientation, and organization were positively correlated at P < 0.05 level. Conflict and control were not significantly correlated with mental well-being. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there was a significant positive relationship between various domains of family environment with mental well-being among adolescent girls. Mental health professionals and community health nurses should take the early initiative to identify any malfunction in families to avoid possible deterioration in mental well-being and psychological problems among adolescent girls.
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Prevalence of nomophobia among college students: An exploratory cross-sectional survey p. 29
Saksham Bajaj, Sushil Kumar Maheshwari, Preksha Sharma Maheshwari
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_21_19  
Background: Mobile phones have become an important part of everyone's lives. In recent times, there seems to have been a transformation of the mobile phone from a status symbol to a necessity because of the countless advantages it provides. Excessive and addicting use of mobile phone, especially smart phone results in physical and psychological symptoms such as loneliness, interpersonal anxiety, poor self-control, and low self-esteem. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of nomophobia among smart phone using collegegoing undergraduate and post graduate students. Methodology: Quantitative, exploratory research approach with cross-sectional survey design was used to assess the degree of nomophobia in 300 conveniently selected college students of Faridkot, Punjab using sociodemographic datasheet and Nomophobia Questionnaire. Results: This study found that 99.7% of the collegegoing students had nomophobia. One-third (32.7%) of the college students had severe level, 59.9% had moderate level, and 7.1% of the individuals had mild level of nomophobia. Conclusion: It is concluded that 99.7% of the participants were suffering from nomophobia. People with excessive smartphone use are at high risk of developing nomophobia. Further, more attention should be given for the early detection and intervention for treat nomophobia.
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Effect of a web-based teaching program designed on moodle on psychopharmacology for b.sc. nursing students p. 33
Mohit Sharma, Smriti Arora, Vikas Thada, JH Naveena
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_9_20  
Introduction: The dynamic use of Internet facilities has shifted the teaching-learning process from traditional classroom teaching to the virtual learning environment. Aim: This quasi-experimental study was done to assess the effectiveness of a web-based teaching program designed on Moodle on “Psychopharmacology” for B. Sc. Nursing students. Settings and Design: Nonequivalent control group pretest posttest experimental design was used. A total of 90 nursing students were selected with total enumerative sampling from Amity College of Nursing, Haryana and Galgotias School of Nursing, Greater Noida. Subjects and Methods: A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge of students regarding psychopharmacology. Group I, i.e., the experimental group received a web-based teaching program and Group II, i.e., control group received conventional teaching. Structured opinionnaire was used to assess the students' acceptance toward web-based teaching program. Results: The post mean knowledge score of students in experimental group (24.80 and 23.83 on day 11 and 21) and conventional teaching program (24.4 and 24.1 on day 11 and 21) was higher than their pre intervention knowledge scores in Group I (15.89) and Group II (15.25). Thus, both web-based teaching program and conventional teaching were found equally effective at statistically significant at P < 0.001. More than half of the students (54.31%) strongly agreed that web-based teaching program design on Moodle regarding psychopharmacology was acceptable. Conclusions: Thus, both methods of teaching were found effective in proving education to students.
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Prevalence of problematic internet use and internet usage pattern among adolescents p. 39
Preeti Mathew, K Raman
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_7_20  
Background: There has been a rapid rise in the use and ease of access to the Internet worldwide, including South-East Asian countries like India. Problematic Internet use (PIU) has become a global phenomenon that causes a serious problem to the affected individual leading to impairment in psychological well-being. Aim: The present study is aimed to assess and compare the prevalence of PIU and the pattern of Internet usage in North and South India. Setting: The study was conducted in Private and Private Aided Schools of two states of North and South India. Methods: The study with a cross-sectional comparative design was conducted for a period of 1 month among 900 students. The participants were selected using nonprobability, convenient sampling technique. The samples who met the inclusive criteria were provided with a self-administered questionnaire after obtaining written consent from their parents and assent from the students. Results: The prevalence of PIU was found to be 1.16% among adolescents of North India and 4.40% in adolescents from South India. A significant difference (χ2-1.111, P- 0.000) was found for PIU of the adolescent from two regions were compared.Conclusion: PIU was found in most of the students in both states. Hence, its important to identify the activities which are the key factors that may influence PIU among adolescents, and it should be put under control using effective measures.
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Top

Anger management in adolescents: A systematic review p. 51
Shamala Anjanappa, Radhakrishnan Govindan, Manjula Munivenkatappa
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_37_19  
Children and adolescents lack adequate skills to recognize and cope with the feelings of anger, which is often displayed in the school setting in the form of disruptive behaviors. Training adolescents with anger management skills reduces the negative outcomes related to anger issues. The objective of review is to provide comprehensive overview of anger management interventions for adolescents. Search was done using electronic databases such as Cochrane Library, OVID Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost Springer, Wiley Online Library, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO. Total 212 studies were found on anger management; twelve studies (five meta-analysis, one randomized controlled trial, one mixed methods, and five experimental) fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study and these studies were included in the systematic review. Majority of the studies used cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as predominant therapeutic strategy for anger management for adolescents. Only few studies included rational emotive behavior therapy, social skill training, and education on anger. CBT with problem-solving skill training, communication skill training, and self-instruction was found to be effective in reducing anger problems in adolescents.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Parental role in the protection of mental health of children during COVID-19 lockdown p. 57
M Vijayarani
DOI:10.4103/IOPN.IOPN_14_20  
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