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Prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Johny Kutty Joseph, Babitha K Devu
February 2019, 16(2):118-125
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the popular neurological developmental disorders among children, adolescents, and even in adults. It is manifested by difficulty in attention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. ADHD and impulsivity can hinder in the school life, attaining goals, different abilities, and competitions of the student. There is ample literature reporting the prevalence of ADHD in the most part of the world. However, the prevalence of ADHD is not clearly understood in India. Many studies have been conducted in India to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in different parts of the country, but no attempt has yet been done to draw a conclusion on the pooled prevalence of ADHD in India. The goal of this study is to review all the available observational studies on the estimation of prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents from different parts of the country to calculate the pooled prevalence of ADHD in India (among children and adolescents). The search also was limited to studies conducted from 2009 to 2019. All the epidemiological survey related to ADHD prevalence was included in the study after considering the inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. Each individual study was assessed for risk bias using the “Quality assessment checklist for prevalence studies” extracted from Hoy et al. Pooled Prevalence estimates was calculated with random effect model. The point prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in the included studies ranges from 1.30% to 28.9%. The pooled prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents is 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1%–9.8%). The summarized prevalence of ADHD is 9.40% (95% CI 6.50%–13.30%; I2 = 96.07% P < 0.001) among male children and 5.20% (95% CI 3.40%–7.70%; I2 = 94.17% P < 0.001) among female children with a range of 7.6%–15% in 8–15 years of children. The prevalence of ADHD among children in India is consistent with the worldwide prevalence. According to the ADHD Institute, Japan the world prevalence of ADHD ranges from 0.1% to 8.1%. This explains that ADHD affects quite a large number of children in India. As India is known for stigma related to mental disorders understanding the prevalence of ADHD in Indian Population helps to gain an insight into morbidity burden of the country and helps the parents and teachers to take care of the persons suffering from ADHD.
  7 19,457 800
Resilience, psychological well-being, and coping strategies in medical students
Sonika , Shalini , Rajesh Kumar
February 2019, 16(2):92-97
Introduction: The period of transition from school to medical education is critical and students faced many challenges and have a stressful life. Coping and resilience level of a student determine psychological well-being for higher professional competence and learning. The study aims to determine impacts of coping, and resilience on psychological well-being among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted by randomly enrolling 151 MBBS students at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand. The information on personal and professional domains, coping, resilience and psychological well-being was sought by using sociodemographic profile sheet, resiliency scale for adult, BREF-COPE (Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced), and Ryff's psychological well-being scale. Appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics was applied to formulate results. Results: Resilience did not show significant relationship with psychological well-being in medical students. However, it was found that high level of resilience enables to predict more autonomy (P < 0.05), personal growth (P < 0.05), help in findings meaning in life (P < 0.05) and develop strong structural aspects (P < 0.05) in physical structure. Further, higher resilience enables to more use of self-distraction (P < 0.05). Likewise, it was also evident that better level of psychological well-being enables students to use more active coping (P < 0.05), positive reframing (P < 0.05), and acceptance coping strategies (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Higher level of resilience will help the medical graduates to buffer day to day stressors and enalbles to use more positive coping strategies. Discussion and Recommendation: Improvement in social and personal life of the health sciences students should be kept in mind along with clinical competency. Development of resilience to tolerate day to day life hassles is a healthy practice to have a positive augmentation of psychological well-being. The study recommended to implicit educational training centered on resilience and positive coping strategies in future.
  5 6,041 441
Mental Health Issues in India: Concerns and Response
Mala Kapur Shankardass
January 2018, 15(1):58-60
  4 14,158 643
Effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation therapy on anxiety and depression: A pre-experimental study on elderly people of old age homes
Ajay Kumar Ghodela, Virendra Singh, Narendra Kaushik, Sushil Kumar Maheshwari
February 2019, 16(2):56-60
Introduction: Old age is the closing period in the life span, and it is characterized by certain physical and psychological changes in human being, including anxiety and depression. These changes often determine personal and social adjustments of the elderly. Aim: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation therapy on anxiety and depression among elderly people residing in selected old age homes of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Pre-experimental research approach with one group pretest–posttest design was used to conduct the study. Nonprobability convenience sampling technique was adopted to select 50 elderly of selected old age homes of Rajasthan. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale were used to assess anxiety and depression, respectively. Progressive muscle relaxation technique (PMRT) was implemented and continued once a day for 10 days for 20–30 min. Results: The study found that 28.0% elderly had moderate anxiety and 100% had depressive symptoms at baseline. After PMRT, anxiety and depression reduced significantly at P < 0.05.Conclusions: The study concluded that progressive muscle relaxation is effective in reducing level of anxiety and depression among the elderly but need to conduct same study on large sample. Elderly should be taught about progressive muscle relaxation so that they can use to reduce their anxiety and depression.
  4 6,876 715
Models and roles in National Mental Health Programme
G Balamurugan, G Radhakrishnan, M Vijayarani
January 2019, 16(1):52-54
In India, National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) was started in 1982 with the primary objectives of ensuring availability and accessibility of minimum mental healthcare for all. In 1985, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, had developed Bellary model of District Mental Health Programme (DMHP), to achieve the objectives of National Mental Health Programme (NHMP). The current DMHP has more scope for the nurses to deliver mental health services as psychiatric nurse and community nurse. Hardly, one-third of districts in India are covered under DMHP and the service utilization is also to be strengthened. Psychiatric nurses have greater scope to transform all these existing challenges into opportunities.
  3 6,394 329
Addiction severity, social functioning, and life satisfaction of patients diagnosed with substance use disorders
Baruah Aditi, Baruah Arunjyoti
July 2018, 15(2):13-18
Aim: Present study was conducted to examine the levels of addiction severity, social functioning and life satisfaction of the patients diagnosed with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and to see the relationship among them. Methodology: This descriptive study was conducted at the OPD of a tertiary care psychiatric hospital, of Assam, between months of October to November, 2017. Fifty patients with SUDs who comply with the inclusion criteria were selected by purposive sampling technique and interviewed by using a Socio-demographic questionnaire, Leeds dependence questionnaire, Self-structured tool for assessment of social functioning of patients with SUDs and satisfaction with life scale. Results: There were 42% of participants who were severely dependent, their social functioning also deviated from a normal satisfactory level and 24% of them were slightly satisfied and also 24% were dissatisfied with life. A significant negative correlation between addiction severity and life satisfaction of patients with SUDs (p=0.001) and a significant positive correlation between social functioning and life satisfaction of patients with SUDs (p=0.011). Conclusion: Interventional study could be done to implement some activities, social functioning and life satisfaction of patients diagnosed with SUDs.
  3 3,115 253
Internet Addiction: A Growing Concern In India
SK Maheshwari, Sharma Preksha
January 2018, 15(1):61-68
India stands second in the world with approximately 500 million Internet users. Fast technological improvements have increased the accessibility and uses of internet in all age group tremendously since past decade arising threats that many individuals especially adolescents, will be affected by internet addiction. Purpose of this paper is to present comprehensive overview of the current literature on Internet addiction. Though internet addiction is not officially recognized as a distinct behavioral disorder yet but in context of rapidly growing internet use, the internet addiction (IA) is been recognized as a global concern. It seems necessary to have some effective measures for prevention and management of internet addiction. Multi-model treatment of internet addiction looks promising but focus should also be on prevention. People should be made aware about the negative consequences of irresponsible internet use. Achieving a balance between provision of adequate internet facilities and protection of public from hazards of Internet use poses a challenge for policymakers. Mental health professionals should be aware about IA and work towards implementation of preventive, diagnostic and treatment strategies. World Mental Health Day 2018 will focus on “young people and mental health in a changing world” with an emphasis on the needs of this population on which our future depends. Young people are spending most of their time in online activities including pornography, gambling, online video games, excessive chatting, cyber bullying and cyber crimes etc. India has the youngest population in the world but it’s our responsibility to inculcate the right habits among next generation so we don’t lose the power of our young just in surfing online and they are available in real world instead of a virtual one only.
  2 20,816 867
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children of Kashmir and role of nurse
Ulfat Amin
July 2017, 14(1):37-40
In Kashmir perpetual turmoil has taken a heavy toll on the people living over here, by destabilizing their physical, social, mental and spiritual health. The impact of this unrest has affected lives of all, irrespective of gender, age, occupation and religion. This paper is written with an objective of, giving description of present mental health scenario and associated behaviour of people of Kashmir especially children.
  2 1,842 127
Mental health literacy among university students from University Of Delhi
U Arundev, Sandhya Gupta, K Sharma, Rakesh K Chadda
January 2017, 13(1):1-7
Mental health literacy can be defined as knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management or prevention. Young generation and college going students have unique perceptions about mental illness in every section of the society. They are the future adults of this society and windows of modern India, so their opinions are important indicators of mental health literacy. Aim of the study was to assess the mental health literacy among students of university of Delhi. The study was conducted using a descriptive, exploratory, cross sectional survey design on 100 (50 males and 50 females) postgraduate students from the University of Delhi, India. A semi-structured interview, with a standardized tool, Mental Health Literacy (MHL) questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of students towards patients with mental disorders like depression and psychosis. Results shows Most of the subjects had well awareness about identification of the patients with mental disorder, whereas as more than half of the subjects had exact awareness to identify depression. Most of the subjects had adequate knowledge and identified poor outcome and prognosis for patients with psychosis as compared to depression if not treated. Stigmatization of subjects towards patient with depression and psychosis was present and was higher for psychosis. Most of the subjects rated psychiatrist and immediate community members as the most reliable help for the patients with depression and psychosis. Conclusions drawn from the study were, overall mental health literacy of the university students in Delhi was found to be adequate, but not satisfactory in the area of risk factors and stigmatization.
  2 5,114 372
The prevalence of shift work sleep disorder and the quality of sleep among nurses working in selected Hospitals, Hyderabad
Anumol Joseph, Sister Mary Brooke, Jelby , Pushpalatha , Sharon , Sunitha
January 2018, 15(1):10-12
Now a days the shift work is one of the most important cause for sleeping disorders among nurses. In almost every occupation round the clock performance is expected and the census data shows that there is a large segment of the work force is employed on nonstandard work schedule which may include shift work. A study was conducted with the aim to assess the occurrence of shift work disorder (SWD )and quality of sleep among staff nurses in a selected hospital of Hyderabad. Methods: The study was conducted in a private hospital of Hyderabad, Telangana.The sample size was 60 staff nurses of a selected multispecialty hospital of Hyderabad.The tools selected for the study was Pittsburgh’s sleep quality index and a questionnaire was developed for assessing shift work disorder prepared by reviewing the literature, Bergen’s shift work disorder and global sleep disorder scale. Result: The result of the study revealed that 83.3% had mild Shift Work Disorder followed by moderatemild SWD16.6% and surprisingly no mild SWDand severe mild SWD were reported by the staff nurses .In regards to sleep quality, majority of the nurses that is 70% reported to have poor quality of sleep whereas only 30% of the nurses reported to have good quality of sleep. There was no association found between prevalence of shift work sleep disorders and age, marital status and duration of sleep. In conclusion, reducing night work exposure appears to be the best intervention strategy for preventing SWD. A high prevalence of SWDsymptoms may call for a focus on the systemic antecedents of work related sleep problems.
  2 3,734 235
Knowledge of and attitude on assessment of substance use disorders of nurses working in general wards
Sumity Arora Tarafdar, Sandhya Gupta
January 2018, 15(1):33-38
Early detection of substance abuse disorders can facilitate treatment. Health care professional’s knowledge and attitudes can play a role in the failure to identify and address patients with substance use problems and may negatively influence the care that these patients receive. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge of nurses working in general wards regarding assessment of substance abuse in patients and their attitude towards patients withsubstance abuse. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted on 150 Nurses working in medical, surgical, emergency, ICU, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology wards of selected hospital of New Delhi, selected by simple random sampling method. A socio-demographic data was collected. Other Tools: A structured knowledge questionnaire and Attitude scale was used for assessing knowledge and attitude. Total knowledge score ranged from 0-16 and total attitude score ranged from0-75. Informed consent was taken prior to the data collection from the study subjects. Results: Mean knowledge score of subjects regarding substance use was 7.17 (with range of score as 1-13). One third of the subjects 32% (n=48) have inadequate knowledge, 58.66% (n=88) have average knowledge and 9.33% (n=44) have good knowledge regarding assessment of substance use disorder in patients. The unfavorable attitude was shown by 5.33% (n=8) of subjects and 94.66% (n=148) of subjects have favorable attitude towards patients with substance use disorders. Knowledge was significantly associated with attitude. The was no association of knowledge and attitude with selected demographic variable. Conclusion:The study findings suggest that majority of nurses need to attend educational and training programs for assessment of substance use disorders to participate in care planning of persons with substance use disorders.
  2 3,248 194
“Marital Satisfaction And Burnout In Spouses Of Patient With Schizophrenia”
Indu Jacob, Nurnahar Ahmed
January 2018, 15(1):43-47
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder, characterized by profound disruptions in thinking, affecting language, perception, and the sense of self. The partner diagnosed with schizophrenia, weaves a web of doubt, confusion and chaos in the caregiving spouse. Information from the World Health Organization states that schizophrenia affects about 24 million people across the world, with a worldwide prevalence of about 0.7%.The study aimed to find out marital satisfaction and burnout in spouses of patient with schizophrenia. Materials And Method: A non experimental quantitative approach and descriptive research design was adopted for the present study. Seventy spouses of patients with schizophrenia were selected through purposive sampling technique. The data was collected by using socio demographic data sheet, Locke & Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (MAT) and Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI). The collected data were systematically coded, computed and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS 20. Analyses of the data were done in accordance with the specified objectives. Result: The majority respondents had marital satisfaction and lower scores of burnout. The marital satisfaction of spouses of patient with schizophrenia had significant negative correlation with the domains of burnout i.e. exhaustion (r=-0.534, P=0.000) disengagement (r= -0.366, P=0.002).
  2 2,598 160
Effectiveness of guideline on knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers towards identification and management of children with specific learning disabilities
Kalyani Moharana
February 2019, 16(2):77-83
Background: An effective education is vital not only for individual advancement but also to provide a capable workforce and citizenry for our country. Initial teacher training is regarded as a cornerstone of the development of inclusive education. Learning disabilities (LDs) are present in at least 10% of the population. In India, prevalence rate of LD ranges from 9% to 39% and incidence of dyslexia in primary school children has been reported to be 2%–18%. Aim and Objective: Present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the guidelines on knowledge and attitude of trainee school teachers toward identification and management of children with specific LDs (SPLDs) by conducting pretest before intervention and posttests after intervention on 7th and 60th day. Materials and Methods: From each Zone (East, West, North, and South) of Odisha, one district was selected. A total of 269 trainee school teachers sample were selected. Qualitative study approach was used in this study with pretested and predesigned questionnaire. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) to compare pretest and posttest knowledge questionnaire and attitude scale score over the time period; the “P” value was significant at 0.001. Results: Findings revealed that the data were analyzed using RMANOVA to compare pretest and posttest knowledge questionnaire and attitude scale score over the time period; the “P” value was significant at 0.001. This indicated that the guidelines for trainee school teachers toward identification and management of children with SPLD was effective in improving the knowledge and attitude significantly over the time period of the trainee school teachers. Conclusion: Guideline (self-instructional module) is effective for trainee school teachers to improve their knowledge and attitude toward identification and management of children with SPLDs over the time period.
  2 2,378 216
Restraints practices among psychiatric nurses in state mental health-care setting, Karnataka, India
Sreevani Rentala, Sunanda Govinder Thimmajja, Raveesh Bevinahalli Nanjegowda, Prasanth Bevoor
February 2019, 16(2):98-104
Background: Using physical restraints are a highly preferred practice in psychiatric wards. The main reason to use physical restraints in psychiatric wards is to prevent injury to patient and others and reduce violent behavior among mentally ill patients. Purposes: The purpose of the study is to determine the use of physical restraints and ongoing practices among nurses working at psychiatric wards. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study done involving fifty psychiatric nurses. Nurses who agreed to participate in the study filled out structured self-report questionnaire prepared by the investigators. Results: The mean number of patients cared by each nurse per month was 52.88 and mean number of patients restrained by nurse per month was 7.74. Twenty percent of nurses reported that they use alternatives before employing restraint practices. Ninety percent of nurses reported using roll of gauze as a restraint material. A good number of nurses (68%) reported that the restraint procedure is limited to <2 h. Only 4% nurses reported receipt of written orders for use of restraints. There was a significant association between age of the nurses with number of patients cared. Conclusion: For a better nursing care, it is very important to develop a restraint practice protocol.
  2 3,077 169
Effect of Nurse Led Brief Psycho-Education in Improving Self-Reported Medication Adherence Among Clients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital North India: Quasi-experimental Study
Manisha Deswal, Jaison Joseph, Vinay Kumar
July-December 2020, 17(2):72-78
Introduction: Although fewer people in India consume alcohol, a larger proportion is affected by harmful use or dependence on alcohol. Medication compliance found to be the most important predictor in the outcomes of alcohol de-addiction treatment. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-led brief psychoeducation in improving the self-reported medication adherence among treatment-seeking clients attending a de-deaddiction center of North India. Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study in which a total of 70 subjects were consecutively recruited as per the sampling criteria. A trained nurse delivered a 30-min individual-based brief psychoeducation for those in the intervention group as per the standard module. The subjects in the control group received the usual hospital care. The outcome measures were changes in adherence to medication measured as per the Medication Adherence Rating Scale during a 1-week follow-up. Results: The mean age of the subject was 37.53 (standard deviation – 9.57). Disbelief toward treatment (84.28%), persisting comorbid illness (47.14%), and forgetfulness (35.7%) were the most common self-reported factors for medication nonadherence in this setting. The study observed a statistically significant improvement in the self-reported medication adherence in the intervention group as compared to the control group during the 1-week follow-up period (independent sample t-test; t = 7.14; P < 0.01). Conclusion: The present study identified that nurse-led brief psychoeducation might be an effective strategy in improving medication adherence among clients with alcohol dependence syndrome in this setting. However, further studies with the rigorous scientific approach are needed to generalize the findings.
  2 2,458 197
Community-based management of opioid use disorder: Role of nursing professionals and paramedical workers
Naveen Dhagudu, Snehil Gupta, Roshan Bhad, Ravindra Rao
January 2019, 16(1):43-48
Magnitude of the opioid use problem is high globally, as well as in the India, as has been reported in various global and national epidemiological surveys on substance use disorder. There is a marked gap between the burden of substance use problems, particularly opioid use-related problems, and treatment services. Many international organizations have recommended an integrated model of treatment to overcome this gap. Community-based treatment services help in catering to the large population of the opioid using individuals, especially the hidden, marginalized population. The newer model of low threshold approach to treatment has gained popularity among the opioid using population. Further, it plays a significant role in reducing stigma attached to opioid users and also enhances treatment seeking. Community opioid use treatment setups, being located in the community itself, are in unique position to promote community participation and integrate local resources. Such treatment centers play a crucial role in promotive, preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitative services for individuals with opioid use problems. Paramedical staff/nursing staff play a significant role in providing opioid use treatment services such as supervised dispensing, observing signs of opioid withdrawal and also of intoxication, intervening in case of opioid overdose, and also acting as bridge between the treatment-seeking population and the specialist doctor.
  1 2,136 183
Effect of preoperative teaching on anxiety level of patients with neurosurgery
AC Esther Lilly, B Dakshayani
July 2018, 15(2):1-3
Neurosurgical procedures are carried out to treat various disorders affecting the nervous system. It is common to feel nervous and anxious when one is scheduled to undergo a neuro surgical procedure. Aim: to know the effect of preoperative teaching in reduction of anxiety just before the neurosurgery. Methods: The study was conducted using nonequivalent control group pre-test and post-test design on patients who were admitted in surgical ward for first fifteen days 26 patients as interventional group. After fifteen days interval, again selected all the patients who met the inclusive criteria who were admitted in surgical ward for another fifteen days 28 patients for as control group. Anxiety was evaluated using a validated Spielberger State-Trait anxiety inventory. Findings: The study includes and. Comparison between interventional and control group in relation to sex, education, domicile and income found statistically similar. At admission, State and trait anxiety score mean value of interventional group were 45.31 and control group were 45.11. Interventional group anxiety score reduced to Mean value of 40.31, just before surgery, which is statistically significant (p>0.05) whereas no change of anxiety score in control groups, Mean value to 47.75 just before surgery, which is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that preoperative teaching could decrease the level of preoperative anxiety in this patient population.
  1 2,948 288
Effectiveness of an educational package on “Prevention Of Substance Abuse on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Girls In Selected Colleges Of Delhi
Jyoti Singh, Santosh Mehta, RG Mathur
July 2018, 15(2):36-41
A study to determine the extent of substance use and to assess the effectiveness of an educational package on prevention of substance use in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice of girls in selected colleges of Delhi. The research design adopted was pre experimental one group pre test post test design. Data was collected from 200 students of Delhi University with the help of structured knowledge questionnaire, attitude scale and practice checklist. The obtained data was analysed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics in terms of frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation and “t value”. Findings suggested that 33.5% girls used tobacco, and 45.5% girls used alcohol. The obtained mean difference (8.7) for knowledge was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value 41.43 for Df=199 at 0.05 level of significance.The obtained mean difference for attitude was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value 42.74 for df=199 at 0.05 level of significance. The obtained mean difference (3.13) for practice was found to be statistically significant as evident from ‘t’ value (10.1)for df= 199 at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: Educational package in the form of a booklet, pamphlets, power point presentation and games related to substance abuse was an effective method of teaching college girls about prevention of substance abuse as it not only provided them with the necessary learning and interactive material but also serves as a source of reference for them and their peers.
  1 2,418 200
Prevalence of depression among geriatric population
Sindhu Gopal, Meena Chacko, Punita A Sharma, D Mitra
July 2018, 15(2):42-45
Background:Life expectancy has increased in India, elderly population is currently the second largest in the world and 20% of illness in the elderly is due to mental or a neurological illness and the most common being dementia and depression. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of depression among geriatric population attending OPD of selected tertiary hospitals. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on 120 geriatric population attending Out Patient Departments of selected tertiary care hospital selected by stratified simple random sampling method. Tools: The questionnaire included section I, socio demographic data and section II Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form(GDS-SF). Ethical clearance obtained from institutional research ethical committee. Permission was obtained from tertiary hospital and informed consent was taken. Results: Prevalence of depression was 24.2%. Conclusion: with the gradual greying of population expected in India over the coming time, maintaining a good quality of life for the senior citizens is the need of the hour.
  1 2,316 198
Effectiveness of standardized psycho-education for primary caregivers of patients in Tertiary Care Hospital
Yumnam Surbala Devi, Rajesh Konnur
July 2018, 15(2):46-52
Background: Many people are still unaware that there are effective treatments for schizophrenia. A combination of regular medication, family education and support can reduce the relapse rate from 50% to10%. Aim: To assess effectiveness of standardized psycho-education for primary caregivers on care of chronic mentally ill patients. Method: One group pre-test post-test design with pre-experimental approach was used. 50 primary caregivers of patient with schizophrenia were selected using purposive sampling technique. Data was collected using structured knowledge questionnaire from two selected hospitals of Mangalore. A 45 minutes standardized psycho education was given to primary caregivers in small group of three.Results: Mean knowledge score at pre-test was 25.82±5.35 and 36.28±3.607 at post-test. There was significant difference in knowledge scores of pre-test and post-test (t= 21.676, p<0.01). In area wise analysis, 29.35% gain in knowledge score in drug treatment and its side effect, followed by27.6% increase in relapse prevention, 25% in mental illness and its causes, 17.86% was increased in communication, and social interaction and minimizing psychosis. There was no association between knowledge score and selected demographic variables. Conclusion: There was significant gain in knowledge score of primary caregivers. The study concluded that standardized psycho education was effective in increasing the knowledge of primary caregivers of care of chronic mentally ill patients. Psycho education of the family members is the key to understand about the illness and provide better care to the patient.
  1 2,351 176
A descriptive study to assess the level of anxiety and depression among alcohol use disorder patient in a tertiary care hospital of Western Maharashtra
Seema Madhavan Nair, Punita A Sharma, Radhika Das
January 2019, 16(1):11-14
Background: Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. In addition to the direct pharmacological effects of alcohol on brain function, psychosocial stressors that commonly occur in heavy-drinking alcoholic patients (e.g., legal, financial, or interpersonal problems) may indirectly contribute to on-going alcohol-related symptoms, such as sadness, despair, and anxiety; the association of alcohol consumption and associated anxiety or depression need to be studied. The objectives of the study were to assess the (1) level of anxiety among the AUD patients and (2) level of depression among the AUD patients. Methodology: A descriptive study to assess the level of anxiety and depression among AUD patients in a tertiary care hospital of Western Maharashtra was conducted on 30 AUD patients from April 03 2018, to April 17, 2018. The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) containing 14 questionnaires, 7 for anxiety and 7 for depression, was administered; the collected data were analyzed and interpreted. Results: The analysis of the score has shown that 60% of the patients had mild anxiety and 40% possessed normal anxiety level in the anxiety component of HADS and 70% of the patients had mild depression and 30% of the patients had moderate depression in the depression component of the HADS. Those patients who have mild anxiety also have a mild or moderate level of depression. Conclusion: Assessment of associated anxiety and depression among AUD patients and subjecting to treatment if required will benefit the treatment compliance of AUD.
  1 4,695 325
Tobacco use and Smoking among patients undergoing treatment of Cancer”
Laxmi Kumari, Sandhya Gupta
January 2018, 15(1):53-57
Introduction: It is estimated that 46-75% individuals has tobacco-smoking history at the time of diagnosis of cancer and 14% - 58% continue to smoke even after the initiation of their treatment. The current study is done in a tertiary care hospital to find out the continuation of tobacco use among patients post diagnosis of cancer. The objectives were to assess current tobacco use among cancer patients after diagnosis and after initiation of treatment, to assess awareness about the available tobacco cessation treatments and types of facilities for treatment and exposure to passive tobacco-smoking. Methods: The study was conducted in adult patients suffering from cancer, admitted in a tertiary care hospital for treatment. It was a quantitative approach cross-sectional survey design. Total enumeration sampling method was used for enrolling the patients. Tools: a questionnaire containing five items was used to assess the history of tobacco use, continuation of tobacco use after diagnosis, continuation of tobacco use after initiation of cancer treatment, awareness about the treatment services available for tobacco de-addiction and exposure to passive smoking. Written informed consent was taken from patients and their family care giver. Results: The mean age of 102 study patients was 46.18 years. Sixty percent of study patients were male and 40% were female. Fifty three percent of study patients were using tobacco in past it includes both smoke and smokeless tobacco, among the tobacco users (n=52), 81% of study patients stopped tobacco use after diagnosis of cancer. A total of fifty three percentage of study patients were currently using tobacco. Forty percent of Study patients did not have any knowledge about available medical treatment for tobacco cessation. Forty two percent of study patients reported that they were exposed daily to passive smoking. Conclusion: Despite enormous gains from tobacco cessation, very few persons give up tobacco use spontaneously, and that is also due to illness factor. Therefore it is the responsibility of the health professionals to guide the patients for enrolling into the tobacco cessation program at the earliest after the diagnosis of cancer.
  1 1,374 117
Levels of depression among wives of alcoholics and non- alcoholics- A comparative study
GS Sumathi
January 2018, 15(1):1-4
Introduction: Alcohol use affects each member of the family - from the unborn child to the alcoholic’s spouse. The spouse may have feelings of hatred, self-pity, avoidance of social contacts, may suffer exhaustion and become physically or mentally ill. Aim: Present study aimed to assess and compare the levels of depression among wives of alcoholics and non–alcoholics. Material and method: The sample comprised of 60 wives of alcoholics and 60 wives of non - alcoholics who were selected purposely. The tools used in study were structured interview schedule and 21 items Beck Depression Inventory. Results: The findings of the study revealed that exactly 50% of wives of alcohol dependents had severe level of depression and 35 % had moderate level of depression whereas 33.7% and 63.7% of wives of non-alcoholics had mild and minimal level of depression respectively. It also showed a significant association between the levels of depression and selected demographic variables such as duration of alcohol intake, reasons for alcohol intake and amount spent in buying alcohol at p<0.01. Conclusion: Study recommends the proper consultation and health services for wives of alcoholics.
  1 3,323 253
The resilience and quality of life people with mental illness attending psychiatric rehabilitation centre
Asha vijayan, Harshitha , Nihizh Savio, G Radhakrishnan
July 2017, 14(1):20-24
Psychiatric disorders are the most common cause of disability. People with disability/disorders are often denied their rightful opportunities in work, relationships, housing, health care and other areas in which a full life is achieved. This adversely affects their quality of life. The rehabilitation of people with mental illness impacts their ability to lead independent lives outside the hospital. Studying the relationship between quality of life and resilience is needed for improving therapy and services. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the resilience and quality of life of people with mental illness attending psychiatric rehabilitation centre. A descriptive and correlation study carried out on day boarder’s patients attending psychiatric Rehabilitation Service unit, NIMHANS, India. Thirty patients with mental illness attending as day boarder in PRS unit for rehabilitation services were enrolled. They were evaluated using modified dispositional resilience scale and Quality of Life Instrument-BREF. The study result showed that patients had highest QOL scores in environment domain and overall mean QOL score was 64.25 ± 14.25 and the mean resilience score (54.8 ± 8.79) showed high resilience. There was a statistical significant positive correlation between all domain of QOL and level of resilience. There was improvement in psychological health as well as a positive correlation between the QOL and resilience in mentally ill.
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Prevalence of aggression in patients post traumatic brain injury taking treatment at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi
Tenzin Nyidol, Sandhya Gupta, Deepak Agarwal, Ramandeep Pattnayak
July 2017, 14(1):25-27
Background of the study: Traumatic Brain Injury is a health problem occurring equally globally. About 40% of traumatic brain injury victims suffer from various psychiatric disorders and adverse cognitive and emotional effects which may affect the outcome of treatment from complete recovery to permanent disability. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of aggression and its correlates among patients post traumatic brain injury seeking treatment from Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done on patients post taking follow up treatment. Ethical clearance was obtained from Ethics Committee, AIIMS. Results: Most of the patients post-TBI were male. The prevalence of aggression among patients post TBI was found to be 55%. Occurrence of aggression was associated with use of tobacco (p=0.04) by patients, and was not found to be associated with duration of injury. Conclusion: The post-TBI patients are at a high risk of developing aggression and use of tobacco can put the patients at a higher risk of developing aggression post TBI. Thus nurses need to emphasize on management of aggressive behavior and also train patients in social skills, when patients visit follow up clinic for rehabilitation.
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* Source: CrossRef